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系統識別號 U0046-0309201415140100
論文名稱(中文) 公豬稀釋精液添加 Trolox 對冷凍保存精液品質之影響
論文名稱(英文) Effects of Trolox to boar diluent semen on the quality of cryopreserved semen
校院名稱 宜蘭大學
系所名稱(中) 生物技術與動物科學系
系所名稱(英)
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 蔡宗翰
學號 r0036006
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2014-07-29
論文頁數 74頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳銘正
委員-胡怡浩
委員-劉秀洲
委員-林育安
關鍵字(中) 公豬精液
冷凍保存
水溶性維生素E -Trolox
關鍵字(英) Boar semen
Cryopreservation
Trolox
學科別分類 學科別生物資源生物學
中文摘要 公豬之精液通常應用液態與冷凍兩種方式保存,目前種豬場主要以液態方式保存公豬精液,但每頭公豬每次採集之精液稀釋之劑量通常多於配種母豬之頭數,造成優良種豬精液之浪費,若能冷凍保存,將可增加優良種公豬之利用。本試驗之目的乃研究長效型 (Safe cell) 與短效型 (BTS) 之公豬稀釋精液添加 Trolox 保存2日或3日後製成冷凍精液對公豬精子品質與體外受精能力之影響。
試驗一、 將新鮮公豬精液以1 : 1比例混合含有 Trolox 之 Safe cell 稀釋液,使 Trolox 最終濃度為 200 μM,再將精液保存於16 ~ 18℃冰箱中2日或3日後製成冷凍精液,最後使用位相差顯微鏡與流式細胞儀觀察精子冷凍前與解凍後0小時、 2小時與4小時之精子活力、頭巾完整性、存活率與粒線體功能性。結果顯示,精子保存2至3日期間,Trolox 之添加對於各項指標皆與對照組無顯著差異;將精液解凍後,添加 Trolox 保存3日之頭巾完整性 (34.6%) 顯著高於保存2日之對照組 (28.1%) (P < 0.05),添加 Trolox 保存2日之精子解凍後第2小時之活力 (46%) 顯著高於 Trolox 保存3日者 (40%) (P < 0.05),各項指標皆因解凍後時間因素 (0小時、2小時與4小時) 而顯著下降 (P < 0.05),解凍後第4個小時各組之各項指標均無顯著差異。
試驗二、 將新鮮公豬精液以1 : 1比例混合含有 Trolox 之長效型 (Safe Cell) 或短效型 (BTS) 稀釋液,使 Trolox 最終濃度為 200 μM,將稀釋精液保存於16 ~ 18℃冰箱中,利用 DPPH 之抗氧化試驗檢測保存0日與3日之精液自由基清除率。

試驗三、使用位相差顯微鏡與流式細胞儀檢測精液於保存期間與冷凍解凍後0小時、 2小時與4小時之精子活力、頭巾完整性、存活率與粒線體功能性。
試驗四、使用體外受精技術評估解凍精子之受精能力。試驗結果顯示:Trolox 之添加對於保存0日與3日後之自由基清除率並沒有顯著效果,也不影響保存3日之 BTS 組與 Safe cell 組精液之精子活力、頭巾完整性、存活率與粒線體功能性。在冷凍精液解凍後各項精液性狀方面, BTS 與 Safe cell 之稀釋精液冷凍解凍後各項指標均無顯著差異,且添加 Trolox 亦無改善之效果。然而,各組之冷凍精液在解凍後各項指標皆會隨著時間延長而顯著下降 (P < 0.05)。進一步以體外受精技術驗證各組冷凍精液之生育力,發現四組在精子穿透率與多精入卵率均無顯著差異。
綜上所述,在稀釋精液保存期間添加 Trolox 可以提高精子之頭巾完整性,延長稀釋精液保存時間所製造之冷凍精液可能降低精子之活力,應用 BTS 與 Safe cell 稀釋精液保存3日所製造之冷凍精液,解凍後之精子品質與受精能力並無顯著差異,但 Safe cell 長效型稀釋精液解凍後之精子可維持較好之品質。
英文摘要 Liquid and frozen methods are usually used to apply in boar semen preservation. The principal semen preservation is liquid method in pig breeding farm. However the number of semen dosages of collected and diluted the boar semen is usually greater than the number of mated sows. It wastes the excellent boar semen. If we could cryopreserve the liquid boar semen, we would increase the application of the excellent boars. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Trolox in diluent boar semen for 2 and 3 days storage on the sperm quality and in vitro fertility of cryopreserved boar diluent semen. In experiment 1, the fresh boar semen was mixed with SafeCell diluent containing 200 μM Trolox in a 50% ratio, and stored at 16 to 18 ˚C in a refrigerator for 2 and 3 days. Before and after cryopreservation, the sperm motility, acrosomal integrity, viability and mitochondrial activity of the stored semen were analyzed using phase contrast microscopy and flow cytometry. The thawed semen was examined during 4 hours (0, 2 and 4 hours) post-thawed. The results indicated that the sperm quality parameters including motility, acrosomal integrity, viability and mitochondrial activity of liquid stored semen with Trolox after 2 d and 3 d storage were no significant difference compared with the control. The acrosomal integrity of cryopreserved diluent semen with Trolox for 2 d storage was 37.8% that was significantly better than the control (28.1%) (P < 0.05). At post-thawed 2 hours, the motility of sperm in diluent semen with Trolox for 2 d storage was 46% that was significantly higher than the same treatment for 3 d storage (40%) (P < 0.05). At post-thawed 4 hour, all quality parameters of the 4 groups were not different significantly.In experiment 2, fresh boar semen was mixed with SafeCell or BTS diluents containing 200 μM Trolox in a 50% ratio, and stored at 16 to 18 ˚C in a refrigerator for 3 d. Before cryopreservation, the free radical scavenging of diluent semen sored at 0 and 3 days was analyzed by DPPH antioxidant assay. Before and after cryopreservation, the sperm motility, acrosomal integrity, viability and mitochondrial activity of the cryopreserved semen were analyzed by phase contrast microscopy and flow cytometry. Finally, the fertility of the frozen semen was evaluated by in vitro fertilization of porcine oocytes. The results showed that the free radical scavenging among all groups was not significantly different before semen cryopreserved. The quality parameters of thawed semen, including motility, acrosomal integrity, viability and mitochondrial activity did not differ significantly between SafeCell and BTS diluent semen with or without Trolox. However, the incubated time (0, 2 and 4 hours) of post thawed semen affected all quality parameters. The longer time of incubation decreased the sperm quality. The diluent semen supplemented with Trolox did not improve the sperm quality of cryopreserved semen. Finally, there was no difference of penetration rate and polyspermy rate in IVF experiments among the 4 groups.In conclusion, the Trolox in diluent semen could improve the integrity of sperm acrosome, and extension the time of liquid stored semen decreased the sperm motility of frozen-thawed semen. All parameters and fertility of BTS and SafeCell diluent semen with or without Trolox that stored 3 days and cryopreserved did not differ significantly after been thawed. We also suggested that the shorter time diluent (BTS) could be used to dilute boar semen for cryopreservation, but the longer time diluent (SafeCell) maintained the better sperm quality of post-thaw semen.
論文目次 中文摘要 I
AbstractIII
致謝 V
表次 XIII
圖次 XIV
頁次 XIV
壹、前言 1
貳、文獻檢討 2
一、豬人工授精概況 2
(一)人工授精之歷史與優勢 2
(二) 台灣豬人工授精之現況 3
二、 公豬精液 4
(一) 精子發生 4
(二) 精子構造 4
1. 頭部 5
2. 中節 5
3. 尾部 5
(三) 精漿成份 5
三、 公豬精液之保存 6
(一) 液態精液之保存 6
1. 精液之採集 6
2. 稀釋精液之益處 7
3. 公豬精液稀釋液之成分 7
(1) 醣類 7
(2) 鹽類 8
(3) 抗生素 8
(4) 螯合劑 8
(5) 保護劑 9
4. 稀釋保存之困境 9
四、 冷凍精液保存 10
五、 影響冷凍精液之因素 11
(一) 冷凍前之傷害 11
(二) 冷凍過程 12
(三) 解凍後之傷害 13
(四) 脂質過氧化與過氧化物之產生 13
1. 精漿之移除 14
2. 細胞質內之抗氧化系統貧乏 14
3. 精子代謝作用 14
(五) 冷凍保護劑 15
1. 醣類 15
2. 蛋黃 16
3. 甘油 16
4. 清潔劑 Orvus ES Paste (OEP) 17
六、 冷凍精液之保存方式 17
(一) 粒狀冷凍精液 17
(二) 法式麥管 18
1. 0.5 ml小麥管 18
2. 5 ml 大麥管 18
參、材料方法 19
一、 公豬精液之採集與稀釋 19
二、 精液品質檢測 19
(一) 精子濃度 19
(二) 精子活力 20
(三) 精子形態檢測 20
(四) 流式細胞儀檢測 22
1. 精子存活率 22
2. 粒線體功能性 22
三、 冷凍稀釋液之配製與精子冷凍方式 27
(一) 冷凍稀釋液之配製 27
(二) 精子冷凍之方式 27
四、 冷凍精液之解凍方式與體外受精試驗 28
(一) 卵母細胞之體外成熟 28
(二) 冷凍精液之解凍與體外受精 29
(三) 卵母細胞之形態評估 29
(四) 冷凍精液體外受精能力之評估指標 30
五、 試驗設計 30
(一) 添加Trolox 於長效型稀釋精液保存 2 至 3 日 與冷凍解凍後 對精子品質之影響 30

(二) 添加 Trolox於長效型 (Safe cell) 與短效型 (BTS) 稀釋精液對保存 2 小時與 3 日,精液抗氧化能力之影響。 31

(三) 添加 Trolox 至長效型 (Safe cell) 與短效型 (BTS) 稀釋精液中對保存3日所製成之冷凍精液解凍後精子品質之影響。 32

(四) 以體外受精技術評估添加Trolox至長效型 (Safe cell) 與短效型 (BTS) 稀釋精液保存3日並冷凍解凍之精子品質。 32

六、 統計分析 32
肆、結果 34
一、 添加Trolox 於長效型稀釋精液保存 2 至 3 日 與冷凍解凍後對精子品質之影響。 34

二、 添加 Trolox於長效型 (Safe cell) 與短效型 (BTS) 稀釋精液對保存 2 小時與 3 日,精液抗氧化能力之影響。 39

三、 添加 Trolox 至長效型 (Safe cell) 與短效型 (BTS) 稀釋精液中對保存3日所製成之冷凍精液解凍後精子品質之影響。 41

四、 以體外受精技術評估添加Trolox至長效型 (Safe cell) 與短效型 (BTS) 稀釋精液保存3日並冷凍解凍之精子品質。 49

伍、討論 51
一、 添加Trolox 於長效型稀釋精液保存 2 至 3 日 與冷凍解凍後對精子品質之影響。 51

二、 添加 Trolox於長效型 (Safe cell) 與短效型 (BTS) 稀釋精液對保存 2 小時與 3 日,精液抗氧化能力之影響。 52

三、 添加 Trolox 至長效型 (Safe cell) 與短效型 (BTS) 稀釋精液中對保存3日所製成之冷凍精液解凍後精子品質之影響 53

四、 以體外受精技術評估添加Trolox至長效型 (Safe cell) 與短效型 (BTS) 稀釋精液保存3日並冷凍解凍之精子品質。 55

陸、結論 56
柒、參考文獻 57
捌、附表 68

表1. 稀釋精液 (Safe cell) 添加 Trolox 對保存2日或3日
後公豬精子品質之影響 36

表2. 公豬稀釋精液中添加 Trolox 並保存 2 日或 3 日對
冷凍解凍後精子之活力與頭巾完整性之影響 37

表3. 公豬稀釋精液中添加 Trolox 並保存 2 日或 3 日後
製成冷凍精液,對解凍後精子之存活率與粒線體功能性之影響 38

表4. 添加 Trolox 於長效型 (Safe cell) 與短效型 (BTS)
稀釋精液保存 2 小時與 3 日對抗氧化能力之影響 40

表5. 添加 Trolox 至長效型 (Safe cell) 與短效型 (BTS) 稀釋
精液保存 3 日後精子品質之影響 44

表6. 添加 Trolox 至長效型與短效型公豬稀釋精液保存 3 日
對冷凍解凍後精子受精能力之影響 50

圖 1. 公豬精子之形態 21

圖 2. 流式細胞儀檢測精子存活力之點狀圖 23

圖 3. 共軛焦顯微鏡觀察精子之存活率 24

圖 4. 流式細胞儀檢測精子粒線體功能性之點狀圖 25

圖 5. 共軛焦顯微鏡觀察精子之粒線體功能性。 26

圖 6. 添加Trolox至長效型與短效型稀釋精液保存3日並
冷凍解凍後精子活力之變化。 45

圖 7. 添加Trolox至長效型與短效型稀釋精液保存3日並
冷凍解凍後精子頭巾完整性之變化。 46

圖 8. 添加Trolox至長效型與短效型稀釋精液保存3日並
冷凍解凍後精子存活率之變化。 47

圖 9. 添加Trolox至長效型與短效型稀釋精液保存3日並
冷凍解凍後精子粒線體功能性之變化。 48
附表 1. BF3 精子固定液 68

附表 2. 冷卻與冷凍用稀釋液配方 69

附表 3. 含抗生素之生理食鹽水 70

附表 4. 磷酸緩衝溶液 (D - PBS) 71

附表 5. 北卡羅萊納州立大學 - 23培養液 ( NCSU - 23 ) 72

附表 6. 精子洗滌液 73

附表 7. 三羥甲基氨基甲烷緩衝培養液 (TBM) 74
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系統識別號 U0046-0909201416581200
論文名稱(中文) 羊乳製備疏水性小胜肽之研究
論文名稱(英文) Production of Hydrophobic Peptides from Goat Milk
校院名稱 宜蘭大學
系所名稱(中) 生物技術與動物科學系
系所名稱(英)
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 王儷潔
學號 r9933003
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2014-05-10
論文頁數 68頁
口試委員 指導教授-吳輔祐
委員-郭村勇
委員-楊瀅臻
委員-鄭金益
關鍵字(中) 解離酪蛋白膠粒
酵素水解
疏水性胜肽
關鍵字(英) Dissociation of casein micelle
enzymatic hydrolysis
hydrophobic peptides
學科別分類 學科別生物資源生物學
中文摘要 多脯胺酸胜肽 (Proline-rich peptides, PRP) 其高量的疏水性胺基酸和特殊的脯胺酸 (Proline) 序列,在多篇報告證實其具有干擾β澱粉樣蛋白 (Amyloid β, Aβ) 疏水性聚集、降血壓和降膽固醇等功效。為製備疏水性小胜肽,比較常見之食品蛋白如酪蛋白 (Casein)、乳清蛋白 (Whey protein)、大豆蛋白 (Soy protein) 和卵清蛋白 (Ovalbumin) 之胺基酸序列,發現β酪蛋白有較高量的Proline和疏水性胺基酸,並以羊乳的含量為最高。故本研究旨以羊乳酪蛋白在適宜條件下酵素水解,製備大量含Proline之疏水性小胜肽。實驗結果顯示凝乳酪蛋白以胰蛋白酶 (Trypsin) 水解,其水解胜肽會疏水性聚集而影響水解效率,若將凝乳酪蛋白於高溫延展後水解,亦無法有效提升水解效率。由於酪蛋白膠粒內部高度疏水性聚集會影響酵素水解,為能有效解離酪蛋白膠粒,分別以EDTA或檸檬酸螯合鈣離子,或調鹼性pH值、高功率超音波等方法解離羊乳酪蛋白膠粒。實驗結果調整鹼性pH值無法解離膠粒,但以30 mM EDTA、200 mM檸檬酸或超音波 (20 kHz 50 W) 皆能有效解離。解離後的酪蛋白經胰蛋白酶水解,證實膠粒預先解離能有效改善酪蛋白的酵解,其中以超音波處理組最佳。而本研究所製得的酪蛋白水解胜肽,以根據β酪蛋白序列自製的PRP單源抗體偵測,顯示其分子量約在6.5 kDa以下 (6.5 kDa cut-off),以低濃度的甲、乙醇分別萃取,皆能獲得較多含量之疏水性胜肽。乙醇萃取物經胺基酸分析組成,其疏水性胺基酸為59.46%,其中Proline為17.91%。本研究顯示以胰蛋白酶水解羊乳酪蛋白,可製備含高量Proline之疏水性小胜肽,且經超音波預處理可提升水解效率。
英文摘要 Proline-rich peptides (PRP), with specific proline sequence and high amount of hydrophobic amino acids, hase been shown to interfere with β-amyloid (Aβ) hydrophobic aggregation, lower blood pressure and cholesterol, etc. To produce hydrophobic peptides, the amino acid sequences of common food proteins such as casein, whey protein, soy protein and ovalbumin, were searched and compared. β casein was found to have the highest amount of PRP, and goat milk contains more β casein than cow milk does. Therefore, goat milk casein was selected for PRP production. Casein from rennet coagulation was hydrolyzed with trypsin with the result that the hydrophobic peptide aggregated affecting the efficiency of hydrolysis. Further treatment with prior stretching of casein at high temperature did not improve the hydrolysis efficiency. Since casein exists as micelle which composed of more than ten thousands casein molecules, it is resonable that dissociation of the casein micelles might enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis. Addition of 30 mM EDTA or 200 mM citric acid, as well as application of ultrasound (20 kHz 50 W) could dissociate the casein micelle, while increasing pH was not effective. The micelle dissociated casein was subjected to trypsin hydrolysis, and the results confirmed the improved efficiency, with the ultrasound treatment the best. Previously, monoclonal antibody (mAb) against spicific PRP sequence was generated in our laboratory. The mAb was used to detect the casein hydrolysate, and the molecular weight was below 6.5 kDa. The PRP was further extracted with different concentration of methanol or ethanol to increase the hydrophobicity. Amino acid analysis of the ethanol extracted PRP showed 59.46% of hydrophobic amino acids, with 17.91% Proline. This research demonstrated that trypsin digestion of goat milk casein could produce high amount of hydrophobic proline-rich peptides.
論文目次 摘要 I
Abstract II
目錄 III
圖目錄 VI
表目錄 VII
壹、前言 1
貳、文獻探討 4
一、疏水性小胜肽 4
1.疏水性小胜肽特性 4
2.疏水性小胜肽於疾病防治 6
(1)疏水性小胜肽降低膽固醇 6
(2)疏水性小胜肽作用血管收縮素轉換酶降血壓 8
(3)疏水性小胜肽干擾β澱粉樣蛋白疏水性聚集 10
(4)疏水性小胜肽降低自由基產生 12
二、乳 14
1.乳清蛋白 14
2.酪蛋白 15
(1)特性及膠粒結構 16
(2)酪蛋白的分離 22
(3)酪蛋白的解離 22
3.乳內源酵素 24
4.乳脂和礦物質 24
參、材料與方法 26
一、材料 26
1.乳樣 26
2.藥品及器材 26
3.溶液配制 28
4.儀器設備 28
二、方法 29
實驗一:破壞膠粒-延展凝乳酪蛋白 29
1.製備凝乳酪蛋白 29
2.水解凝乳酪蛋白 30
實驗二:破壞膠粒-鹼性pH值、鈣螯合劑和高功率超音波 31
1.製備羊乳酪蛋白 31
2.鹼性pH值解離 31
3.鈣螯合劑解離 32
4.高功率超音波解離 33
5.水解鈣螯合劑、超音波解離之酪蛋白 34
實驗三:切向流過濾膜限制性水解 34
分析水解胜肽 36
1.蛋白質定量 36
2.聚丙烯醯胺膠體電泳 36
3.硝酸銀染色 37
4.西方墨漬法 37
5.有機溶劑萃取水解胜肽 38
6.胺基酸分析 39
肆、結果 39
實驗一、破壞膠粒-延展凝乳酪蛋白 39
實驗二、破壞膠粒-鹼性pH值、鈣螯合劑和高功率超音波 41
1.鹼性pH值解離 41
2.鈣螯合劑解離 42
(1)EDTA解離 42
(2)檸檬酸解離 43
3.高功率超音波解離 44
4.水解鈣螯合劑、超音波解離之酪蛋白 46
分析水解胜肽 47
1.SDS-PAGE硝酸銀染色 47
2.西方墨漬法 48
3.有機溶劑萃取水解胜肽 49
4.胺基酸組成分析 50
伍、討論 52
一、樣品及酵素選擇 52
二、實驗一、破壞膠粒-延展凝乳酪蛋白 53
三、實驗二、破壞膠粒-鹼性pH值、鈣螯合劑和高功率超音波 53
四、切向流過濾膜限制性水解 55
五、酪蛋白水解胜肽SDS-PAGE和Western blot 55
六、抗體偵測有機溶劑萃取疏水性胜肽 56
七、胺基酸組成分析 57
陸、結論 58
柒、參考文獻 59
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系統識別號 U0046-0909201417144400
論文名稱(中文) 以雷射測距儀抽取環境線性幾何特徵並應用於保全機器人之室內導航
論文名稱(英文) Extract Linear Geometric Features of Indoor Environment Using Laser Range Finder for the Navigation of the Security Robot
校院名稱 宜蘭大學
系所名稱(中) 生物機電工程學系
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 黃浥諠
學號 r0031004
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2014-07-28
論文頁數 169頁
口試委員 指導教授-歐陽鋒
委員-李汪盛
委員-程安邦
關鍵字(中) 直線特徵
雷射測距儀
保全機器人
全向移動載具
關鍵字(英) line features
laser rangefinder
security robot
omni-directional vehicle
學科別分類 學科別生物資源生物學
中文摘要 本研究為解決一般室內保全監視系統定點監測感測死角較多之缺點,已開發一台具有室內已知環境巡邏功能的保全機器人載具。此載具由三個全向式移動輪組成,以筆記型電腦為主控制器,以BASIC stamp與馬達驅動器控制行走馬達,由雷射測距儀擷取室內環境直線特徵,並與已知地圖進行比對與定位,行走過程中以超音波感測器偵測路徑中的障礙物,載具能在包括多房間與走廊之已知室內地圖環境中行走,並依序前往預先所制定的巡邏點,執行巡邏任務。
直線特徵辨識試驗中,雷射測距儀可在不同量測距離與量測角度下成功辨識直線特徵。在單一角度不同距離量測平面木板之長度誤差率在5%以下;單一距離不同角度下量測平面木板之長度誤差率在4%以下。直線特徵填補量測試驗中皆能成功填補被遮蔽之木板,直線特徵填補長度之誤差率在3%以下。在編碼器移動距離試驗中,編碼器量測載具直線移動距離在單次移動0.5m的情況下誤差率在6%以下;於載具旋轉試驗中,載具右轉向與左轉向的誤差率皆在4%以下。
全向移動載具定位試驗結果顯示,所開發之定位程式可成功進行載具定位,以雷射測距儀在矩形組成之單一房間環境中定位誤差在0.05m以下。最後在全向移動載具巡邏單一房間與多房間巡邏試驗中,載具皆能成功進行巡邏,並在出現定位錯誤的情況下載具能利用定位邏輯重新定位,並完成所有巡邏任務。
英文摘要 We developed a mobile robotic vehicle with the capability to patrol known indoor environment in order to resolve the blind spot issues of normal indoor video surveillance systems. This vehicle consists of three omni-wheels, a laptop, a BASIC stamp controller, ultrasonic sensors, and a laser rangefinder. The line features of the indoor environment were extracted and used to locate the vehicle position. The vehicle is designed to move around multiple rooms and corridors in the known indoor environment. It can also proceed to the assigned patrol points in sequence.
The experiments show that the laser rangefinder is able to measure line features under different measuring lengths and angles. The error rate is below 5% when we measure the flat wooden board with fixed angle and variable distances. The error rate is below 4% when measuring with fixed distance and variable angles. The experiments also show that the program can successfully reconstructs the hidden line features with the error rate of the length under 3%. The error rate using an encoder to measure the moving distance of the vehicle is below 6% within 0.5m of linear motion and is below 4% for rotary motion of the vehicle.
The experiments also show that the program is capable of locating the vehicle position in the maps. The distance error is less than 0.05m with a laser rangefinder moving around in a single room formed by rectangles. The finally developed vehicle is able to patrol in multiple rooms successfully. The vehicle can relocate itself and complete the patrol even when locating failure happened sometimes.
論文目次 致謝 II
摘要 III
ABSTRACT IV
目錄 V
圖目錄 IX
表目錄 XV
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 研究目的 2
第二章 文獻探討 3
2.1 室內保全系統 3
2.2 移動載具 5
2.2.1 載具移動方式 5
2.2.2 全向移動輪式載具 7
2.2.3 全向移動載具運動學方程式 9
2.3 感測器 11
2.3.1. 旋轉編碼器 12
2.3.2. 雷射測距儀 13
2.3.3. 超音波感測器 13
2.4 室內環境地圖 19
2.4.1 室內環境幾何特徵辨識 19
2.4.2 室內環境地圖建構 23
第三章 材料與方法 25
3.1 全向移動載具設計 26
3.2 機電控制部 28
3.2.1. 微控制器 28
3.2.2. 八軸串列馬達控制器 31
3.2.3. HB-25馬達驅動器 32
3.2.4. 資料擷取卡 33
3.2.5. 直流馬達與編碼器 35
3.3 感測器 36
3.3.1 雷射測距儀 36
3.3.2 超音波感測器 41
3.4 載具定位功能 43
3.4.1. 已知室內地圖繪製 45
3.4.2. 直線特徵辨識 47
3.4.3. 直線特徵填補 52
3.4.4. 載具定位計算 55
3.5 載具巡邏功能 63
3.5.1. 載具巡邏路徑規畫 65
3.5.2. 載具沿牆行走 70
3.5.3. 載具房間巡邏 72
3.5.3.1. 載具單一房間巡邏 73
3.5.3.2. 載具走廊環境巡邏 76
3.5.3.3. 載具巡邏定位 79
3.5.4. 載具房間轉移 81
第四章 試驗方法 84
4.1 直線特徵辨識 84
4.1.1 不同掃瞄距離直線特徵量測實驗 84
4.1.2 不同掃瞄角度直線特徵量測實驗 85
4.2 直線特徵填補量測試驗 86
4.3 編碼器量測移動距離與角度試驗 87
4.3.1 載具編碼器直線行走試驗 87
4.3.2 載具編碼器旋轉試驗 88
4.4 全向移動載具定位試驗 89
4.5 全向移動載具巡邏試驗 90
4.5.1 單一房間巡邏試驗 90
4.5.2 多房間巡邏試驗 92
4.5.2.1. 多房間巡邏預設地圖規劃 92
4.5.2.2. 多房間巡邏點規劃 94
第五章 結果與討論 96
5.1 室內保全機器人 96
5.2 直線特徵辨識 97
5.2.1 不同掃瞄距離直線特徵量測實驗結果 97
5.2.2 不同掃瞄角度直線特徵量測實驗結果 98
5.3 直線特徵填補量測試驗實驗結果 99
5.4 編碼器移動距離試驗 100
5.4.1 直線行走試驗 100
5.4.2 載具旋轉試驗 100
5.5 全向移動載具定位試驗 101
5.6 全向移動載具巡邏試驗 103
5.6.1 單一房間巡邏試驗 103
5.6.2 多房間巡邏試驗 107
第六章 結論 115
第七章 建議與未來展望 116
第八章 參考文獻 117
第九章 附錄 122
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系統識別號 U0046-1009201400012900
論文名稱(中文) 結合非線性動態系統、離散事件系統及有限狀態機設計一混合控制系統應用於人工氣候室之環境控制
論文名稱(英文) Integrating a nonlinear dynamic system, a discrete event system and a finite state machine to approach the design of a hybrid control system for use in environmental control of an artificial acclimatization chamber
校院名稱 宜蘭大學
系所名稱(中) 生物機電工程學系
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 張邦彥
學號 r0131004
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2014-07-22
論文頁數 63頁
口試委員 指導教授-周立強
委員-邱奕志
委員-陳柏青
關鍵字(中) 溫濕度環境控制
有限狀態機
離散事件動態系統
混合控制系統
混合式邏輯動態系統
關鍵字(英) Temperature–humidity environmental control
Discrete event system
Finite state machine
Hybrid control system
Mixed logical dynamic system
學科別分類 學科別生物資源生物學
中文摘要 本文以混合控制系統為主要架構,運用電腦軟體LabVIEW之虛擬儀控技術設計實現一人工氣候室之溫濕度環境控制系統的模擬介面。本研究以質能平衡為主的非線性系統狀態方程組描述人工氣候室內溫濕度環境之動態變化,結合混合式邏輯動態系統(Mixed Logical Dynamic System, MLDS)及邏輯分析法以模擬離散時間下受控系統。藉由片段線性函數離散化及擬合觀點,解決非線性溫濕度動態系統所衍生的複雜數學問題,而能以物理定律、邏輯規則及限制條件演繹溫濕度環境控制之有限狀態機。本系統機制係以狀態不等式及布林邏輯函數式建構描述溫濕度環境控制下之複雜邏輯規則,以轉譯LabVIEW程式完成溫濕度環境動態系統之模擬操作介面。模擬結果顯示此溫濕度環境動態系統之模擬操作介面,可於戶外春(秋)、夏及冬季三種不同氣候下,將室內溫濕度調控於標的區域內,並估測各環控設備虛擬操作所消耗電力,就如同實機執行之結果。本文這樣模式演繹方法對於人工氣候室及環境調控可提供一個發展範例並大大地降開發成本、時間及錯誤。
英文摘要 In this paper, based on the modeling scheme of a hybrid control system, a temperature-humidity environmental controller for use in a phytotron is designed by using a LabVIEW software with the virtual instrumentation techniques to implement the simulator of a temperature-humidity environmental control system. By employing a set of nonlinear state-space differential equations based on the principles of energy and mass equilibrium, the dynamics of indoor temperature-humidity environment in a phytotron was described. This study integrates the mixed logical dynamic system (MLDS) and logical analytic methods to simulate this controlled indoor temperature-humidity environmental system under the state of discrete time. Through the use of piecewise linear functions, which could discrete and approach such a nonlinear temperature-humidity dynamic system, this method solved the complex mathematical problem issued from a set of nonlinear state-space differential equations. With the integration of physical laws, logic rules, and operating constrains, the finite state machine, which control temperature-humidity environment in a phytotron, was deduced. By the combination of Boolean algebra algorithms and linear inequalities, the systemic mechanism was built to successfully present the complex logical rules existing in temperature–humidity environmental control procedures. The above mentioned systemic mechanism was systematically transformed to a compiled LabVIEW program to complete the simulator and user’s interface of such a modular temperature-humidity environmental control system. Simulation outcome demonstrates that this simulator could satisfactorily and dynamically modulate the indoor temperature-humidity environment in a phytotron according to expected target ranges under various seasonal conditions (spring (autumn), summer and winter) to provide suitable growth conditions for plants. Through above-mentioned virtual operating conditions, this simulator could accurately estimate power consumption as well as real performance results. This study confirm that the virtual instrumentation techniques (LabVIEW software) to implement temperature–humidity environmental control of emulation analysis in a phytotron for greatly reducing the costs, developed time and errors in implementation.
論文目次 目錄
中文摘要 I
英文摘要 II
謝誌 III
目錄 IV
圖目錄 VI
表目錄 VII
符號說明 VIII
第一章 前言 1
1.1 背景 1
1.1 研究動機 2
1.2 研究目的 4
第二章 文獻回顧 5
2.1 環境系統模型 5
2.2 控制系統模型 7
2.3 控制方法及演繹 10
2.3.1 狀態區間化 10
2.3.2 布林代數演算法及線性不等式 12
2.4 綜合討論 14
第三章 材料與方法 15
3.1 人工氣候室硬體設備 16
3.2環境控制原理及方式 17
3.2.1 濕空氣線圖原理 17
3.2.2 空調控制程序 19
3.2.3 濕空氣熱力參數 21
3.3室內環境控制及干擾因素 23
3.3.1 環控操作及動態方程式 23
3.3.2 環控設備浮動式PWM調控 25
3.3.3 設施室內干擾因素 27
3.4室內溫濕度非線性動態系統 28
3.4.1 溫濕度環境動態方程式 28
3.4.2 環境動態狀態空間方程式 29
3.5 控制策略演繹 30
3.5.1輸入狀態定義 30
3.5.2環控操作策略與輸入出狀態真值表 32
3.5.3 布林函數及線性不等式 36
3.6系統模型建議及LabVIEW程式架構 38
3.6.1 混合控制系統模型 38
3.6.2 LabVIEW程式架構 40
3.7模式及策略驗證 42
第四章 結果與討論 43
4.1人機介面 43
4.2單一閾值模擬結果 46
4.3多階段閾值模擬結果 50
4.4綜合討論 53
第五章 結論 54
參考文獻 55
附錄 58
個人在學簡歷 61
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Jou, L. J., Liao, C. M., Chiu, Y. C. 2005. A Boolean algebra algorithm suitable for use in temperature-humidity control of a grafted seedling acclimatization chamber. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 48: 1-18.
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Stiver, J. A., Antsaklis, P. J., Lemmon, M. D. 1996. A logical DES approach to the design of hybrid control systems. Mathematical and Computer Modeling 23(11): 55-76.
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系統識別號 U0046-1308201414485700
論文名稱(中文) 新穎陽離子抗菌胜肽對多重抗藥性大腸桿菌之抗菌機制
論文名稱(英文) Antibacterial Mechanism of Novel Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides against Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli
校院名稱 宜蘭大學
系所名稱(中) 生物技術與動物科學系
系所名稱(英)
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 李函陵
學號 R0133011
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2014-07-18
論文頁數 73頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳威戎
召集委員-林景堉
委員-許惠貞
委員-陳怡伶
關鍵字(中) 大腸桿菌、抗菌胜肽、多重抗藥性、蛋白質體學、脂多醣
關鍵字(英) Escherichia coli、 Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs)、 Multidrug-resistant (MDR)、 Proteomics、 lipopolysaccharide (LPS)
學科別分類 學科別生物資源生物學
中文摘要 大腸桿菌 (Escherichia coli, E. coli) 是人和動物常見的共生腸道菌群,主要寄生於大腸內,為一種具運動性且無芽孢的革蘭氏陰性菌。致病性大腸桿菌可藉由腸道內外的感染,進而導致人類和動物產生疾病,如尿道感染、腦膜炎、腹膜炎、敗血症、人類細菌性肺炎以及新生兒和離乳仔豬的腹瀉等。然而,過度濫用抗生素使病原菌之抗藥性不斷增強,導致大量多重抗藥性 (multidrug-resistant, MDR) 細菌大量產生。為了克服細菌抗藥性問題,則須開發具新穎性之抗菌製劑。抗菌胜肽 (Antimicrobial peptides, AMPs) 是一群由 12~50 個胺基酸、帶 +2~+9 的正電荷所組成的短鏈胜肽,在許多物種包括﹕人類、青蛙、蠍子、植物、微生物中都能發現。AMPs可選擇性的與帶負電的細菌細胞膜結合,以桶狀穿鑿式、環形孔模式、地毯式等方式裂解細菌,造成其細胞膜損傷,進而導致菌體死亡;甚且進入細菌體內影響其生理代謝。根據前人研究指出,AMPs 對 MDR 菌株亦有顯著的殺菌作用;因此本論文研究目的為利用實驗室前人所開發出之一系列AMPs,對野生型 (WT) 與抗藥型 (1R、8R) (對1或8種抗生素具抗性) 之E. coli菌株進行抗菌活性分析。觀察其最小抑菌濃度 (minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC),分析結果顯示 AMPs 展現出強效的抑菌能力,尤其以 GW-H1-a 抗菌活性最佳;更進一步發現其對於抗性愈高的菌株抗性效果愈好﹕8R (2 ug/ml), 1R (4 ug/ml) 及 WT (8 ug/ml)。接著萃取出 WT, 1R 與8R 的全菌蛋白質,利用蛋白質體學方法來進一步分析 WT 與 MDR 菌株蛋白質圖譜差異;並進一步萃取 WT 與 8R 的外膜、內膜及胞內蛋白質,並以次蛋白質體 (sub-proteome) 方法分析比較 WT 與 MDR 在 E. coli 菌株之蛋白質表現之關鍵差異。將其二維電泳圖譜進一步進行影像分析比對出顯著差異之蛋白質點,接著以 LC-ESI-Q-TOF MS/MS 搭配 Mascot 生物資訊學工具鑑定其身分,以了解 WT 與 MDR 菌株在因應抗菌製劑作用機制上之關鍵差異。同時以競爭試驗瞭解細菌外膜上的脂多醣 (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) 是否為 AMPs 與細菌接觸時主要的作用標的。期能藉上述研究評估將 AMPs 應用於對抗 MDR 菌株之可行性。
英文摘要 Escherichia coli is a Gram-negative bacterium commonly found in human and animal intestinal commensal, mainly parasitic in the large intestine. Intestinal pathogenic E. coli causes a wide variety of severe infectious diseases in humans and animals, such as urinary tract infections, meningitis, peritonitis, septicemia, bacterial pneumonia and diarrhea in neonate and weaning piglets. Moreover, its remarkable ability to acquire resistance against most of commercially available antibiotics has led to a global threat to human health. Abuse of classical antibiotics has led to the mass production of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial strains. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been reported to exert their cytolytic activity by folding into an amphipathic helix upon selectively binding and insertion into the negatively charged bacterial membrane, leading to breakdown of the membrane structure, thus causing leakage of cell contents, resulting finally in cell death. Recent studies indicated that AMPs may serve as a promising solution to combat MDR microbial infections. In our previous studies, we have designed and synthesized a series of novel cationic AMPs with high antibacterial activity and selectivity against a broad spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In the current study, the antibacterial activity of these AMPs against wild-type (WT) and drug-resistant (1R and 8R) E. coli was evaluated. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measurement revealed that GW-H1-a exhibited the best antibacterial activity, showing lower MIC values against higher resistant strains, 8R (2ug/ml), 1R (4ug/ml) and WT (8ug/ml). In order to decipher the responsive mechanism of WT and MDR E. coli against antibacterial agents, whole protein profile and the sub-proteome (including outer membrane, inner membrane and cytoplasmic proteins) of WT and 8R were extracted and investigated using two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE)-based proteomic approaches. Protein spots with significantly altered expression level as revealed by image analysis were subjected to LC-ESI-Q-TOF MS/MS and identified by Mascot program. Furthermore, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) competition analysis was applied to verify if LPS is the major binding target when AMPs approach and adhere to the bacterial surface. According to the findings in this study, we may evaluate the feasibility of these AMPs as novel agents against MDR strains.
論文目次 摘要 I
Abstract III
謝誌 V
目錄(Table of contents) VII
表目錄 (List of Tables) X
圖目錄 (List of Figures) XI
名詞縮寫表 (Abbreviation) XII
第一章、研究背景 1
第一節、大腸桿菌 (Escherichia coli, E.coli) 簡介 1
(一) 大腸桿菌 1
(二) 大腸桿菌之致病性 3
第二節、抗生素 6
第三節、大腸桿菌抗藥性的預防與治療 9
第四節、抗菌胜肽 (Antimicrobial peptides, AMPs) 9
第二章、研究目的 12
第三章、實驗材料與儀器 13
第一節、藥品試劑 13
第二節、儀器設備 15
第四章、實驗流程與方法 17
第一節、實驗菌株培養與保存方法 (Bacterial culture and Storage) 18
第二節、最小抑菌濃度 (Minimal inhibitory concentration) 19
第三節、生長曲線 (Growth curve) 20
第四節、時間殺菌曲線 (Time-kill curve) 21
第五節、蛋白質萃取與分劃 (Protein extraction and fractionation) 21
第六節、蛋白質濃度定量 (Protein concentration determination) 25
第七節、二維凝膠電泳 (Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, 2-DE) 26
第八節、膠片影像擷取與分析 29
第九節、膠體內胰蛋白酶水解 (In-gel digestion) 30
第十節、液相層析電噴灑四級棒飛行時間串聯式質譜儀(Liquidchromatography electrospray ionization quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometer;LC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS) 30
第十一節、競爭試驗 (competitive assay) 30
第五章、結果 32
第一節、野生型與抗藥性大腸桿菌菌株之比較與挑選 32
第二節、抗菌胜肽對野生型及抗藥型大腸桿菌之抑菌效果 32
第三節、大腸桿菌之生長曲線 33
第四節、大腸桿菌之殺菌曲線 34
第五節、蛋白質萃取與二維電泳分析結果 35
第六節、蛋白質之身分鑑定 36
第七節、抗菌胜肽 GW-H1a 與 LPS 之交互作用 37
第六章、討論 39
第一節、抗菌胜肽對大腸桿菌之抑菌效果 39
第二節、抗菌胜肽之殺菌分析 39
第三節、萃取蛋白的限制 40
第四節、野生型與抗藥性大腸桿菌間之差異性蛋白質 40
第七章、結論與未來展望 47
第八章、參考文獻 65
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系統識別號 U0046-1308201417371500
論文名稱(中文) 陽離子抗菌胜肽對前列腺癌細胞株進行選擇性毒殺作用之機制探討
論文名稱(英文) Selective Cytotoxicity of Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides against Prostate Cancer Cell Lines
校院名稱 宜蘭大學
系所名稱(中) 生物技術與動物科學系
系所名稱(英)
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 賴怡寧
學號 R0133033
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2014-07-18
論文頁數 66頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳威戎
共同指導教授-陳怡伶
召集委員-林景堉
委員-許惠貞
關鍵字(中) 抗菌胜肽、抗癌胜肽、前列腺癌、細胞凋亡、細胞自噬
關鍵字(英) Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs)、 Anticancer peptides、Prostate cancer、Apoptosis、Autophagy
學科別分類 學科別生物資源生物學
中文摘要 在台灣,根據衛福部統計,前列腺癌在男性癌症中排名第七,死亡率也逐年上升。在目前的癌症治療方法中有許多侷限,我們希望開發出一種有效且無害的新穎性治療方法。抗菌胜肽 (Antimicrobial Peptides, AMPs),也被稱作宿主防禦胜肽 (Host Defense Peptides, HDP), 目前已有許多文獻指出其具有抗菌、抗癌及免疫調節的功效。我們將針對前列腺癌細胞株使用一系列合成胜肽來檢測其細胞毒殺作用。在目前的研究中,我們評估了這些 AMPs 對兩株前列腺癌細胞株 LNCaP 和 PC-3 的抗癌效力。以 MTT 法來檢測經 AMPs 處理後的細胞存活率。利用光學顯微鏡、共軛焦顯微鏡來觀察經 AMPs 處理後的細胞形態變化與兩者間相互作用的位置;再以流式細胞儀和西方墨點法來分析 AMPs 對兩株前列腺癌細胞株的致死機制。
從 MTT 分析結果中挑選出具高度專一性且能抑制 LNCaP 和PC-3 細胞生長,並對正常細胞沒有毒殺作用的 GW-M1 作為研究目標,並計算出 GW-M1 抑制 LNCaP 和 PC-3 兩株細胞株的 IC50 值分別為 80 μM 和 40 μM,並具劑量依賴性。在細胞型態變化觀察中,經 GW-M1 作用 3 小時至 6 小時後的兩株前列腺癌細胞死亡情形最顯著,並於 12 小時處理後 LNCaP 產生皺縮, PC-3 形態由圓形轉變成細長梭形。以流式細胞儀分析 sub-G1 變化,以作用 6 小時的時間點產生最多 apoptotic sub-G1 population 。以西方墨點法探討細胞死亡路徑,在兩株前列腺癌細胞株中皆有凋亡與自噬路徑的相關蛋白質表現。最後以 Annexin V/PI Apoptotic 驗證細胞死亡路徑,從結果得知 PC-3 之死亡路徑較為符合;而在 LNCaP 中發現,除了有細胞凋亡的產生外,可能也誘導了部分細胞壞死。
英文摘要 According to the report of the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the mortality of prostate cancer in Taiwan increased year by year. Due to the limitations of the current methods in cancer treatment, we hope to develop a novel therapy which may cure prostate cancer effectively without damaging normal cells. Previous studies revealed that, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also known as host defense peptides (HDPs), possess antibacterial, anticancer, and immune regulation effects. In this study, we evaluate the anticancer activity of a series of synthetic AMPs and chemically modified natural AMPs against prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and PC-3. MTT assay was performed to measure cell viability upon AMP treatment. Optical microscopy and confocal microscopy were used to observe cell morphology changes and cellular localization of AMPs. Flow cytometry and Western blot analyses were applied to delineate the AMP-induced death mechanisms against those two cell lines. MTT assay revealed that GW-M1 can selectivity inhibit LNCaP and PC-3 cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, exhibiting IC50 values of 80 μM and 40 μM, respectively. While it is harmless toward the normal 3T3 cell. Cell morphology changes could be observed after GW-M1 treatment for 3 to 6 hr, LNCaP cell were found shrunken, and PC-3 cell shape were changed from round to slim spindle. Flow cytometry analysis with PI staining showed that sub-G1 cell populations were increased upon GW-H1 treatment in both cell lines. Western blot analysis suggested that both apoptosis and autophagy pathways were involved in GW-H1-induced prostate cancer cell death. Finally, flow cytometry with Annexin V/PI double staining further revealed that GW-H1 may also cause necrosis in LNCaP cell line. According to our findings, AMP GW-H1 may induce different cytotoxicity mechanism against these two prostate cancer cell lines, which may be due to their differences in androgen receptor expression.
論文目次 中文摘要.........................................................................................................Ⅰ
英文摘要 (Abstract).......................................................................................Ⅱ
目錄 (Table of contents).................................................................................Ⅲ
表目錄 (List of Tables)..................................................................................Ⅴ
圖目錄 (List of Figures).................................................................................Ⅵ
縮寫表 (Abbreviations)..................................................................................Ⅷ
第壹章、 前言………………………………………………………………1
第一節、前列腺癌 (Prostate cancer)…………………………………1
第二節、抗菌胜肽 (Antimicrobial peptides)…………………………6
第三節、細胞死亡方式 (Cell death ways) ……………………9
第貳章、 研究目的………………………………………………………13
第參章、 實驗材料………………………………………………………14
第一節、 細胞株……………………………………………………14
第二節、 抗菌胜肽…………………………………………………14
第三節、 藥品試劑…………………………………………………14
第肆章、 實驗儀器………………………………………………………16
第伍章、 實驗流程與方法………………………………………………17
第一節、 實驗架構…………………………………………………17
第二節、 抗菌胜肽配製……………………………………………18
第三節、 細胞培養…………………………………………………18
第四節、 MTT細胞存活率分析 (MTT assay)……………………20
第五節、 細胞形態觀察 (Cell morphology changes) 與 AMPs 在細胞中的分布 (Cellular localization) …………………………………21
第六節、 細胞凋亡分析:亞二倍體分析 (Apoptosis assay : sub-G1 assay)…………………………………………………………………21

第七節、 凋亡細胞螢光雙染 (Annexin V / propidium iodide staining)………………………………………………………………22
第八節、 西方墨點法 (Western blot assay)…………………………23
第陸章、 結果 ……………………………………………………………25
第一節、 陽離子 AMPs 對前列腺癌細胞株 LNCaP 和 PC-3 之存活率分析…………………………………………………25
第二節、 陽離子 AMPs GW-M1 對前列腺癌細胞株 LNCaP 和 PC-3 之細胞形態變化 …………………………………26
第三節、 陽離子 AMPs GW-M1 誘發前列腺癌細胞株 LNCaP 和 PC-3 死亡之機制探討 …………………………………27
第柒章、 討論……………………………………………………………29
第一節、 陽離子 AMPs 對前列腺癌細胞株 LNCaP 及 PC-3 抑制作用之探討………………………………………………29
第二節、 陽離子 AMPs GW-M1 對前列腺癌細胞株 LNCaP 及 PC-3 死亡機制之探討 …………………………………30
第捌章、 結論與未來展望………………………………………………33
第玖章、 圖表……………………………………………………………34
第壹拾章、 參考文獻……………………………………………………55

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系統識別號 U0046-1402201415191600
論文名稱(中文) 植物傷害性刺激的電訊號反應─以黃金葛為例
論文名稱(英文) Electrical Responses of Epipremnum Pinnatum to Wounding Stimuli
校院名稱 宜蘭大學
系所名稱(中) 生物機電工程學系
學年度 102
學期 1
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 林嘉偉
學號 R9931008
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2014-01-28
論文頁數 53頁
口試委員 指導教授-許凱雄
委員-周立強
委員-周慶安
關鍵字(中) 植物電訊號
靜止電位
頻譜面積比(FAR)
頻帶比(FBR)
關鍵字(英) electrical signal
resting potential
Frequency Area Ratio
Frequency Band Ratio
學科別分類 學科別生物資源生物學
中文摘要 植物對於外在環境的變化或刺激,會產生一種電性反應。利用適當的記錄方式,可以將此類電性反應轉換成常用的電訊號來表示。從植物電訊號的研究分析,我們有機會可以判讀植物對外在刺激的反應或感受與其自身生長的情形。
本研究擬以人為傷害性及非傷害性刺激,來了解植物受刺激後電訊號反應上的特徵。電訊號的分析分成時域及頻域訊號分析,時域的分析包括振幅、反應時間點、持續時間及傳遞速率等;頻域方面,則觀察其強度、頻率,並且計算頻譜面積比(Frequency Aera Ratio, FAR)。本研究是將功率頻譜圖上的面積分成三波段,極低頻(VLF)代表0 ~ 0.01 Hz波段、低頻(LF)代表0.01 ~ 0.1 Hz波段和高頻(HF)代表0.1 ~ 1 Hz波段,用以了解功率分布在不同波段的情形。
結果顯示,傷害性刺激的電訊號反應強度與傳遞速率,比非傷害性刺激的電訊號反應大且較緩慢,傷害性刺激的FAR_VLF小於FAR_LF,而非傷害性刺激結果則相反。
由此實驗得知,對植物傷害性與非傷害性的刺激,可以透過電訊號反應的分析來判別的。
英文摘要 Plants are subject to external stimulation, and electrical signals in them are usually generated as a result. By analyzing the electrical signals of a plant, we may have a clue to its responses to external stimuli as well as to its own growth.
This study intends to distinguish the differences of Epipremnum Pinnatum’s responses to artificial wounding and non-wounding stimuli. Electrical signals of plants were analyzed in both the time and frequency domains. In addition, the Frequency Area Ratio (FAR) on the power spectrum was calculated. We divided the power spectrum into three bands : the very low frequency (VLF, 0 ~ 0.01 Hz), low frequency (LF, 0.01 ~ 0.1 Hz) and high frequency (HF, 0.1 ~ 1 Hz).
The results show that the intensity of the plant’s responses to wounding stimuli is greater than that to non-wounding stimuli, while the conduction velocity of the plant’s responses to wounding stimuli is lower than that to non-wounding stimuli. For wounding stimuli, the value of FAR_LF is greater than that ofFAR_VLF, while the opposite result was obtained for non-wounding stimuli. Therefore, plant’s electrical responses to wounding and non-wounding stimuli can be differentiated.
論文目次 目錄
誌謝 I
摘要 II
Abstract III
目錄 IV
圖目錄 VI
表目錄 VIII
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 前言 1
1-2 研究目的 2
第二章 文獻探討 3
2-1 植物電訊號研究與演進 3
2-2 植物電訊號的種類 4
2-3 植物電訊號的傳遞 8
2-4 植物電訊號的反應分析 9
第三章 材料與方法 10
3-1 植物選擇 10
3-2 記錄電極與量測位置 11
3-3 量測儀器 13
3-4 環境控制 14
3-5 刺激源 15
3-6 實驗方法 16
3-6-1 量測流程圖 16
3-6-2 實驗規劃 17
3-7 分析方法 18
3-7-1 黃金葛電訊號的時域分析 18
3-7-2 功率頻譜分析(PSD) 19
3-7-3 頻譜面積比(FAR)和頻帶比(FBR) 20
3-7-4 短時距傅立葉轉換(STFT) 21
第四章 結果與討論 22
4-1 黃金葛的靜止電位(resting potential) 22
4-2 黃金葛火燒刺激之電訊號反應之結果 24
4-3 黃金葛冷風吹拂刺激之電訊號之結果 30
4-5 傷害性與非傷害性電訊號反應之比較 42
4-6 傷害性與非傷害性電訊號反應之討論 46
第五章 結論 47
5-1 結論 47
參考文獻 48
附錄一 XCTION VIEW II系統規格 51
附錄二 傳統針不鏽鋼線型針規格 53
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30. Van Sambeek J. W., Pickard B. G., Ulbright C. E. 1976. Mediation of rapid electrical, metabolic, transpirational and photosynthetic changes by factors released from wounds. II. Mediation of the variation potential by Ricca’s factor. Can J Bot. 54, 2651-2661.
31. ZhongYi. W., Qiang L., Lan H., LongL. Z., Zhi-Long X., Rui-Feng H., Cheng W. 2009. Monitoring system for electrical signals in plants in the greenhouse and its applications. Biosystems Engineering, 103, 1-11

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系統識別號 U0046-1402201415515700
論文名稱(中文) 蛋殼膜發酵萃取物於鴨隻生技飼料添加物之開發應用
論文名稱(英文) The development and application of eggshell membrane fermentation extract (EME) as a biotechnological feed supplement for ducks
校院名稱 宜蘭大學
系所名稱(中) 生物技術與動物科學系
系所名稱(英)
學年度 102
學期 1
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 梁雅鈞
學號 r0036014
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2014-01-24
論文頁數 67頁
口試委員 指導教授- 林佳靜
委員-黃振芳
委員-陳威戎
委員-陳銘正
關鍵字(中) 蛋殼膜
發炎反應
飼料添加物
熱緊迫
關鍵字(英) Eggshell membrane
Immune response
Feed supplement
Heat stress
Duck
學科別分類 學科別生物資源生物學
中文摘要 禽類蛋殼為孵化場與食品加工廠丟棄的大量廢棄物,為有效利用並提高其經濟價值,本論文利用蛋殼膜發酵萃取物 (eggshell membrane fermentation extract, EME) 做為鴨隻飼料添加物,分別對肉鴨與蛋鴨進行試驗,以改善肉鴨免疫力、生長性能與熱緊迫下蛋鴨的產蛋能力。
已有文獻證實熱緊迫會降低蛋鴨的生長性能與產蛋效力。因此進一步將蛋鴨飼養於34℃環境中,誘導產生熱緊迫,來進行蛋鴨試驗。蛋鴨試驗則選用40週齡之褐色菜鴨 (Brown Tsaiya ducks ) ,分為熱緊迫及熱緊迫加EME組 (灌食50毫克/公斤體重的蛋殼膜發酵萃取物) 並飼養於34℃。試驗為期三週,每週收蛋五日並測定平均蛋重與蛋品質,並於第21日測定蛋鴨血清參數與發炎因子IL-6含量。此外,為了探討EME的抗發炎功效,利用小鼠巨噬細胞 (RAW264.7) 進行EME抑制NO、發炎因子IL-6與TNF-α的抗發炎活性測試,並利用GC-MS分析有效成分。經由實驗結果顯示,EME能有效改善熱緊迫對蛋鴨的產蛋性能 (產蛋率、產蛋數) 與蛋品質 (蛋殼強度、蛋殼厚度、蛋白高度) ,以及具有抑制RAW264.7產生NO、IL-6與TNF-α的功效。此外,EME經由GC-MS分析出的結果,發現多種可能具有抗發炎能力的成分。
此外,肉鴨因飼養環境狹小,易受到細菌感染而死亡,因此於第十八日腹腔注射脂多醣 (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) 來模擬細菌感染模式,以進行肉鴨免疫能力及生長性能之試驗。肉鴨試驗選用1日齡之北京鴨 (Pekin duck) ,於0~21日試驗期間,分為正常控制組、LPS對照組、蛋殼膜發酵萃取物組 (第十八日注射LPS及每日灌食50毫克公斤體重之蛋殼膜發酵萃取物, EME) ,以及酵母菌組 (第十八日注射LPS及每日灌食106 cfu公斤體重之 Kluyveromyces marxianus, Yeast) 。於試驗第十八日腹腔注射5毫克/公斤體重之LPS於LPS組、EME組與Yeast組,而控制組則注射生理鹽水。並於注射後0、3、6、24與72小時,分別採血測試白血球總數、吞噬作用,以及血清中發炎因子IL-6含量。於採血進行秤重後,犧牲鴨隻測定其肝、脾之發炎指數。此外,並於體外試驗檢測EME對雷氏桿菌(Riemerella anatipestifer)的抗菌活性。實驗結果顯示,灌食EME能減緩鴨隻因LPS刺激產生的發炎反應,且減緩肝臟、脾臟腫脹的情況,並顯著降低發炎後鴨隻的白血球數,與提升巨噬細胞的吞噬活性,以及降低血清中IL-6之發炎激素濃度,於體外試驗也證實EME具有抗菌活性。
綜合上述結果推測,蛋殼膜發酵萃取物能提升鴨隻免疫力與生長性能,且能提升熱緊迫下鴨隻產蛋效率,並具有抗菌與抗發炎之功效,因此蛋殼膜發酵萃取物將具有開發作為鴨隻飼料添加物之潛力。
英文摘要 The avian eggshell is an abundant waste in the poultry and food industries. In order to utilize the waste efficiently and improve economic value, we investigated the eggshell membrane fermentation extract (EME) as a feed additives to enhance the immune response in Pekin ducks and improve the laying performance in heat-stressed Brown Tsaiya ducks.
We investigated the eggshell membrane fermentation extract (EME) as feed supplement to enhance the laying performance, egg quality and anti-inflammation in heat-stressed Brown Tsaiya ducks. Brown Tsaiya ducks (280 days old) were raised during the 30-day experiment between July and August in Taiwan. The two groups are defined as heat stress group and heat stress + EME group, respectively. Ducks in the heat stress group were fed the basal diet, and ducks in the other group were fed the basal diet with 50 mg EME/kg B.W. as the treatment group (heat stress + EME). Compared with the heat stress group, the heat stress + EME group had better laying performance and egg quality under heat stress. The characteristics of the laying performance were all significantly improved by the EME supplement. Also, the egg quality was greatly improved. From the data shown, there were differences of the serum parameters between the heat stress group and the heat stress + EME treatment. These results strongly suggested the improving effect of EME on laying performance and egg quality in heat-stressed Brown Tsaiya ducks. Moreover, the supplement of EME was shown to reduce IL-6 level in serum, an inflammatory cytokine induced by heat stress. To identity the anti-inflammatory components of EME, the evaluation method of LPS-activated macrophage RAW264.7 was tested by nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory assay. After evaluation, the lipid extract of eggshell membrane showed the better anti-inflammatory function than the water extract. Analysis of the lipid-extracted eggshell membrane by GC-MS showed the major components of eggshell membrane are cholesterol and fatty acids.
Since small breeding environment and high rearing density in the poultry industry, it is easy for poultry to be infected by bacteria and viruses then lead to acute immune response. Therefore we investigated the eggshell membrane fermentation extract (EME) as an feed additive to enhance the immune response in Pekin ducks after the acute inflammation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Basal diet was provided at libitum throughout this 21-day study beginning at Day 0. There were four groups: the control group, the LPS group, the LPS + EME group (oral admination of 50 mg EME /kg B.W.), and the LPS + Yeast (group oral admination of 106 cfu Kluyveromyces marxianus). The last three groups, were treated with the intraperitoneal of LPS (5 mg / kg B.W.) at Day 18. Blood samples were collected at 0, 3, 6, 24 and 72 hrs after LPS injection to test white blood cells, IL-6 cytokine and phagocytosis. Liver and spleen were collected for analysis of morphology and immune index. The data showed that oral supplement of EME to the acute inflammatory Pekin ducks was able to decline the cytokine of IL-6, the amount of white blood cells, and the swollen degrees of liver and spleen tissues. Also, EME could enhance the phagocytosis of neutrophil, which meant to improve the immune response in LPS-injectied ducks. We also confirm the EME has anti-bacteria function.
In conclusion, the EME had significant anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial effects. In the future, EME would be a highly potential feed supplement in poultry diet to enhance duck immune response and improved poor laying performance.
論文目次 Table index 5
Figure index 6
中文摘要 7
Abstract 10
Chapter 1 The effects of oral eggshell membrane fermentation extract (EME) on laying performance, egg quality and anti-inflammation in heat-stressed Brown Tsaiya ducks 13
1.1 Abstract 14
1.2 Introduction 16
1.3 Materials and methods 18
1.3.1 Materials 18
1.3.2 Experimental birds and design 18
1.3.3 Experimental diets 19
1.3.4 Egg and blood sampling 19
1.3.5 Assay of serum biochemical parameters 19
1.3.6 Assay of serum IL-6 level 20
1.3.7 Extraction and fraction of eggshell membrane 20
1.3.7.1 Ethanol extract of eggshell membrane before and after fermentation 20
1.3.7.2 Water extract of eggshell membrane before fermentation and after fermentation 21
1.3.8 Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis 21
1.3.9 Anti-inflammation in in vitro bioassay 22
1.3.9.1 NO inhibitory assay 22
1.3.9.2 Cytokine assay of IL-6 and TNF-α 22
1.3.10 Statistical analysis 22
1.4 Results 23
1.4.1 Effects of EME on laying performances and egg quality in Brown Tsayia duck under heat stress 23
1.4.2 Effects of EME on parameters of serum in Brown Tasyia duck under heat stress 23
1.4.3 Effect of EME to decrease IL-6 cytokine of duck serum under heat stress 23
1.4.4 Lipid extract of EME to inhibited NO production in LPS-activated macrophages 23
1.4.5 Effect of EME to reduce IL-6 and TNF-α cytokine in LPS-activated macrophage 24
1.4.6 Fraction of ethanol extract of eggshell membrane 24
1.5 Discussion 33
1.6 References 36
Chapter 2 The effects of oral eggshell fermentation extract (EME) on the anti-inflammatory function in acute immune response of Pekin ducks after LPS injection 41
2.1 Abstract 42
2.2 Introduction 43
2.3 Materials and methods 45
2.3.1 Materials 45
2.3.2 Experimental birds and design 45
2.3.3 Sampling and sample processing procedure 46
2.3.4 Morphological study 46
2.3.5 Total white blood counts 47
2.3.6 Phagocytosis 47
2.3.7 Assay of serum IL-6 levels 47
2.3.8 Extraction and fraction of eggshell membrane 48
2.3.8.1 Ethanol extract of EME before and after fermentation 48
2.3.8.2 Water extract of EME before fermentation and after fermentation 48
2.3.9 Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination Riemerella anatipestifer 49
2.3.10 Statistical Analysis 49
2.4 Results 50
2.4.1 Effects of EME on growth performances after LPS injection 50
2.4.2 Effects of EME on relative liver and spleen weights and tissue morphology after LPS injection 50
2.4.3 IL-6 cytokine in duck serum after LPS injection 50
2.4.4 Effects of EME on phagocytosis after LPS injection 51
2.4.5 Effects of EME on the white blood cell counts after LPS injection ………………………………………………………………51
2.4.6 Effects of EME on the antibacterial function 51
2.5 Discussion 60
2.6 References 64
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系統識別號 U0046-1508201416401000
論文名稱(中文) 建立一用於植物工廠內之具植物結構模型的數值模型
論文名稱(英文) Numerical Modeling of Airflow Within A Plant Factory Using Plant Structure Models
校院名稱 宜蘭大學
系所名稱(中) 生物機電工程學系
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 陳柔臻
學號 r0131002
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2014-07-31
論文頁數 45頁
口試委員 指導教授-楊屹沛
委員-林永昇
委員-楊江益
關鍵字(中) 計算流體力學、植物模型、紊流
關鍵字(英) CFD, Plant Structure Models, Turbulence
學科別分類 學科別生物資源生物學
中文摘要 隨著全球人口增加、糧食短缺問題日益嚴重,因此植物工廠技術的發展愈來愈重要,而在發展的過程中,如何提高單位面積產量、生產品質更是重要的一環,在文獻中提及為使植物成長良好須提高其光合作用速率,在這個改善過程中,風扇位置的架設會影響其生長情形,須透過不斷的實驗來精進技術,且需要長時間以及高成本來進行,於是本研究利用計算流體力學高效率、低成本的優點,以FLUENT(ANSYS, 14.5)模擬軟體來進行,此模擬軟體採用之計算流體力學方法是以SIMPLE演算法結合控制體積法,對控制方程式及標準紊流κ-ε模型進行運算求解。本研究方法係以植物工廠一層架的範圍內,採用四風扇之四種不同位置組合(同側、不同側同軸、不同側不同軸、不同側交錯不同軸)分析各流場剖面圖比較層流及紊流之結果,依此結果建立植物工廠數值模型。
英文摘要 With global population increases, food shortages problem, so the development of plant factory increasingly significant. During the process of development, increase the yield per unit area and production quality plays an important role. In order to make plants grow well, we must increase its photosynthesis rate. In the improvement process, fans location will affect plants growth, and requires continuously experiment to improve techniques with long time and cost. Therefore, the main purpose of this research was used CFD high efficiency and low cost to simulation, and the CFD software FLUENT (ANSYS, 14.5) was used for analysis. This software CFD method is based on SIMPLE algorithm combine the control volume method, solving the governing equations and the standard κ-ε turbulence model at the same time. In this research, four airflow patterns were investigated with four small fans. Four patterns were fans placed on the one-side, both-side and coaxial, both-side and opposed were not set coaxially, both-side and crossed were not set coaxially. Based on the results, we draw contour plots in four patterns, respectively. Compare laminar results with turbulence, and with all the results that we can establish a numerical modeling of airflow within a plant factory using plant structure models.
論文目次 摘 要 I
ABSTRACT II
目 錄 III
圖 目 錄 V
符號說明 X
第一章 緒論 1
1.1前言 1
1.2文獻回顧 2
1.3研究目的 5
第二章 數值分析方法 6
2.1控制方程式 6
2.2 紊流數值模型 9
2.3 SIMPLE演算法 10
2.4控制體積法 11
第三章 數值模擬模型建立 12
3.1植物工廠模型 13
3.2邊界條件 15
3.2.1植物工廠邊界條件 15
3.2.2風扇模型邊界條件 16
第四章 結果與討論 17
4.1計算迭代曲線 17
4.2壓力場觀測 18
4.3速度場觀測 18
4.4流線圖觀測 20
第五章 結論 21
參考文獻 22
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系統識別號 U0046-2110201323480000
論文名稱(中文) 添加木醋液與黑蒜頭對中式香腸品質特性之影響
論文名稱(英文) Effect of wood vinegar and black garlic addition on quality characteristics of Chinese sausage
校院名稱 宜蘭大學
系所名稱(中) 生物技術與動物科學系
系所名稱(英)
學年度 102
學期 1
出版年 102
研究生(中文) 鄭曉薇
學號 r0033006
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2013-10-11
論文頁數 78頁
口試委員 指導教授-林榮信
委員-林亞立
委員-蘇和平
關鍵字(中) 木醋液;黑蒜頭;中式香腸
關鍵字(英) wood vinegar;black garlic;Chinese sausage
學科別分類 學科別生物資源生物學
中文摘要 本研究之目的在探討添加木醋液與黑蒜頭於中式香腸,對其品質的影響評估。試驗共分為六組,分別為未添加木醋液及黑蒜頭的控制組 C, 與添加 1% 木醋液的 W1 組、添加 2% 木醋液的 W2 組,和添加 1% 黑蒜頭的 B1 組、添加 2% 黑蒜頭的 B2 組以及各添加 1% 的木醋液與黑蒜頭的 WB 組。香腸冷藏保存 6 週,進行物性、化性和官能品評分析。結果顯示,木醋液的添加會降低香腸的 pH 值,W2 組之 pH 值為最低 (P < 0.05)。黑蒜頭的添加會使香腸外觀顏色較深,B1 與 B2 組皆比控制組有較低的烘烤前外觀之 CIE L* 值 (P < 0.05)。W1 組在第 5 週和 W2 組在第 6 週,皆比控制組有較低的 TBARS 值 (P < 0.05)。B1、B2、W1 和 W2 組在第 1 週比控制組有較低的總生菌數 (P < 0.05),W2 與 WB 組在第 4 至 6 週亦比控制組有較低的總生菌數 (P < 0.05)。然而官能品評的結果顯示,香腸的氣味、柔嫩度、質感、多汁性和整體接受度,並無組間的顯著差異 (P > 0.05)。雖然 B1 組的風味有較高的評分,但未達顯著差異。
英文摘要 The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of the addition of wood vinegar and black garlic on quality characteristics of Chinese sausage. There were six treatments of Chinese sausages separately added 0% of black garlic or wood vinegar as control group, 1% of black garlic as B1 group, 2% of black garlic as B2 group, 1% of wood vinegar as W1 group, 2% of wood vinegar as W2 group and 1% of black garlic and wood vinegar as WB group. Sausages were stored in a refrigerator for 6 weeks proceeded with physical, chemical and sensory panel analyses. The results showed the addition of wood vinegar decreased the pH values of sausages. W2 had the lowest pH values of sausages (P<0.05). Addition of black garlic resulting the darker appearance of sausages, the CIE L * values of uncooked surface of sausages of B1 and B2 groups were lower than those of the control group (P<0.05). Both W1 stored for 5 weeks and W2 stored for 6 weeks had a lower TBARS values than that of control group, respectively (P<0.05). The total plate counts of B1, B2, W1 and W2 groups were lower than the total plate counts of control group in the first week (P<0.05). The total plate counts of W2 and WB group had a lower number than that of control group after storing 4 weeks (P<0.05). However, the results of the sensory evaluation showed aroma, tenderness, texture, juiciness and overall acceptability of sausages were not significantly different among the treatments (P>0.05). Though the flavor of B1 group resulted in a higher scores, no significantly different was found among them.
論文目次 摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
誌謝 III
目錄 IV
表目錄 VII
圖目錄 IX
壹、前言 1
貳、文獻探討 3
一、木醋液介紹 3
(一) 成分分析 7
(二) 木醋液用途 10
二、黑蒜頭介紹 13
(一)、黑蒜頭應用 15
參、材料與方法 17
一、試驗材料 17
(一)、香腸製作原料 17
(二)、化學試劑 17
(三)、儀器 17
二、方法 19
(一)、試驗設計 19
(二)、中式香腸之製作 20
(三)、分析項目及方法 23
肆、結果與討論 31
一、添加木醋液與黑蒜頭對中式香腸製成率 (%) 之影響 31
二、添加木醋液與黑蒜頭對中式香腸烘烤失重率 (%) 之影響 31
三、添加木醋液與黑蒜頭對中式香腸水分 (%) 之影響 33
四、添加木醋液與黑蒜頭對中式香腸 pH 值之影響 35
五、添加木醋液與黑蒜頭對中式香腸截切值之影響 37
六、添加木醋液與黑蒜頭對中式香腸 CIE L*a*b* 值之影響 37
(一)、烘烤前外觀 CIE L* a* b* 值 39
(二)、烘烤前切面 CIE L* a* b* 值 40
(三)、烘烤後外觀 CIE L* a* b* 值 40
(四)、烘烤後切面 CIE L* a* b* 值 41
七、添加木醋液與黑蒜頭對中式香腸 TBARS 值之影響 54
八、添加木醋液與黑蒜頭對中式香腸總生菌數之影響 56
九、添加木醋液與黑蒜頭對中式香腸官能品評之影響 58
伍、結論 67
陸、參考文獻 68
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系統識別號 U0046-2208201413022800
論文名稱(中文) 以稻殼灰合成CaO/SiO2孔洞微米球為鹼性固態觸媒用於生產生質柴油之研究
論文名稱(英文) Synthesizing CaO/SiO2 Microsphere Using rice husk ash as alkaline solid catalyst for Transesterification of Soybean Oil to Biodiesel
校院名稱 宜蘭大學
系所名稱(中) 環境工程學系
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 黃俊諺
學號 r0124012
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2014-06-12
論文頁數 127頁
口試委員 召集委員-官文惠
委員-胡景堯
委員-劉雅瑄
指導教授-林進榮
委員-張章堂
關鍵字(中) 稻殼灰
氣膠自組裝
轉酯化
生質柴油
關鍵字(英) Rice husk ash
Aerosol-assisted self-assembly process
Transesterification
Biodiesel
學科別分類 學科別應用科學環境工程
中文摘要   台灣氣候利於梗形水稻的種植,年產量約140萬公噸,廢棄稻殼年產量約30萬公噸,稻殼含有豐富矽源,善加利用可減少稻殼燃燒、掩埋所造成之污染。本研究萃取稻殼灰矽源,取代傳統使用化學原料,並使用氣膠自組裝系統快速合成優勢,負載鹼土金屬,以P123為模板劑,控制鈣矽比合成孔洞觸媒。合成觸媒與市售氧化鈣於微波消化爐中以反應溫度65℃、反應時間30分鐘,進行轉酯化實驗比較生質柴油產率。鈣矽比40%之觸媒轉酯化最高產率為25.1%,市售氧化鈣最高產率為8.15%,轉酯化效率優於市售氧化鈣約17%;合成觸媒易於回收特性,經過活化後可重複進行轉酯化實驗,市售氧化鈣會略溶於甲醇須經過分離動作,因此不易回收。多次轉酯化實驗,合成觸媒隨著反應次數增加,活性也隨之降低,產生積碳現象,需經過熱還原處理恢復活性。結果顯示經熱還原處理法活化之觸媒,其活性恢復六成,需經其他活化方式處理,恢復活性。觸媒表面含有氯化鈉阻塞,故將觸媒進行水洗動作,以提高比表面積以及轉酯化效率,經水洗觸媒其最佳轉酯化效率提升至71%,最佳反應溫度65℃、反應時間30分鐘。觸媒經過高溫鍛燒後晶形轉變,實驗結果晶形改變對轉酯化能力並無明顯幫助,其原因為觸媒經高溫鍛燒,球體結構崩解、比表面積下降,因此轉酯化效率降低。
英文摘要   Rice is a staple food in Taiwan; the annual rice production is extensive, estimated at approximately 1.4 million tons per year. Consequential, about 300,000 tons of rice husk are disposed as waste. Rice husk is usually discarded or burned in the fields, causing soil, water and air pollution problems. Rice husk ash (RHA) is an ideal alternative source for material making because of its high percentage of silica, to replace the traditional TEOS. We used Aerosol-Assisted Self Assembly (AASA) process to fabricate mesoporous microspheres, and the P123 was be used as template, with different molar ratio of calcium and silica, it would become Ca-Si sphere. The experimental results showed that a 9:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil, addition of 3% synthesis material 40% Ca-Si ratio sphere, 65 °C reaction temperature and methanol gave the best results, and the biodiesel yield was 26 % at 30 min in microwave, and commercial calcium oxide yield was 8 %. The synthesis material biodiesel yield more than commercial calcium oxide biodiesel yield 17%. The commercially available calcium oxide recovery was 70%, because the fatty acid methyl ester will hydrolyze under basic conditions to generate fatty acid, which can react with commercial calcium oxide to form soap, while our synthesis of microsphere recovery were more than 90%. In recycling studies, all solid catalysts were losses active by increase in the frequency. Through reductant gas at elevated temperature, the result shows that the activity of the microspheres was partially restored about 60%. From XRD and N2 adsorption isotherms results, the sodium chloride clog microsphere structure, result the biodiesel yield decrease. After washing to remove sodium chloride, the suitable reaction conditions that can reach a 71% of conversion rate were methanol/oil molar ratio, 9:1, reaction temperature, 150 °C; and reaction time, 30 min. The material was annealed at 900 °C for 5 hours, leading to the changes on the structure and morphology as the result of decrease in the biodiesel yield .
論文目次 中文摘要……………………………………………………………………I
Abstract……………………………………………………………………II
第一章 緒論………………………………………………………………1
1.1 研究背景與動機………………………………………………………1
1.2 研究目的與內容………………………………………………………2
第二章 文獻回顧…………………………………………………………4
2.1 石化柴油與生質柴油…………………………………………………4
2.2 轉酯化反應成生質柴油………………………………………………5
2.3 轉酯化反應機制………………………………………………………6
2.3.1 同相酸性催化反應…………………………………………………6
2.3.2 同相鹼性催化反應…………………………………………………7
2.3.3 異相酸性催化反應…………………………………………………9
2.3.4 異相鹼性催化反應………………………………………………10
2.4 氣膠自組裝反應製備中孔洞微米球…………………………………16
2.5 廢棄稻殼傳統處理方法……………………………………………19
2.6 稻殼灰之應用………………………………………………………20
第三章 實驗設備與方法………………………………………………22
3.1 實驗藥品與設備……………………………………………………22
3.1.1 實驗藥品…………………………………………………………22
3.1.2 實驗設備…………………………………………………………23
3.2 移除稻殼雜質………………………………………………………24
3.2.1 酸洗稻殼…………………………………………………………24
3.3 中孔洞觸媒製備……………………………………………………25
3.3.1 氣膠自組裝裝置( Aerosol-Assisted Self Assembly;AASA)……25
3.3.2 氣膠自組裝裝置製備孔洞氧化矽觸媒…………………………26
3.3.3 中孔洞氧化矽觸媒負載鈣金屬…………………………………27
3.4 材料特性分析………………………………………………………28
3.4.1 場發射掃描式電子顯微鏡 ( Field-emission Scanning Electron Microscopy;FESEM )……………………………………………………28
3.4.2 高解析度穿透式電子顯微鏡 (High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy;HRTEM )…………………………………………29
3.4.3 X光粉末繞射(Power X-ray Diffraction ; XRD)…………………29
3.4.4 X射線光電子能譜儀(X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy;XPS)…30
3.4.5  X光吸收近邊緣結構(X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure;XANES)……………………………………………………………………30
3.4.6 氮氣等溫吸附-脫附曲線(N2 adsorption–desorption isotherm) …………………………………………………………………31
3.5 轉酯化實驗生成生質柴油…………………………………………33
3.6 多次轉酯化實驗……………………………………………………34
3.7 轉酯化實驗分析……………………………………………………35
3.7.1 轉酯化效率評估…………………………………………………35
3.7.2 氣相層析-火焰離子偵測器(Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection ; GC/FID)………………………………………………………37
3.8 火焰式原子吸收光譜儀(Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry ; AA)…………………………………………………………………………39
第四章 結果與討論……………………………………………………40
4.1 稻殼酸洗前後比較…………………………………………………40
4.2 場發射掃描式電子顯微鏡影像/元素分析 ( Field-emission Scanning Electron Microscopy;FESEM / EDX )…………………………43
4.3 高解析度穿透式電子顯微鏡 (High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy;HRTEM )……………………………………………………59
4.4 X光粉末繞射鑑定(Power X-ray Diffraction ; XRD)………………71
4.5 X射線光電子能譜儀(X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy;XPS)…75
4.6 X光吸收近邊緣結構(X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure;XANES)……………………………………………………………………79
4.7 氮氣等溫吸附-脫附曲線(N2 adsorption–desorption isotherm)…84
4.8 轉酯化反應成生質柴油……………………………………………99
4.8.1 孔洞觸媒轉酯化反應成生質柴油………………………………99
4.8.2 重複轉酯化實驗…………………………………………………105
4.8.3 高溫處理之觸媒轉酯化實驗……………………………………107
4.8.4 水洗孔洞觸媒轉酯化反應成生質柴油…………………………108
第五章 結論與建議……………………………………………………115
5.1 結論…………………………………………………………………115
5.2 建議…………………………………………………………………117
參考文獻…………………………………………………………………119
附錄………………………………………………………………………124
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系統識別號 U0046-2508201416120400
論文名稱(中文) 多孔洞二氧化鈦空心球: 製備、鐵修飾以及在光催化降解對乙醯氨基酚上的應用
論文名稱(英文) Mesoporous Hollow TiO2 Spheres:Preparation, Fe-Doping and Application to Photocatalytic Degradation of Paracetamol
校院名稱 宜蘭大學
系所名稱(中) 環境工程學系
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 楊汶達
學號 b9724005
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2014-03-20
論文頁數 137頁
口試委員 指導教授-林進榮
召集委員-劉雅瑄
委員-Purevsuren
委員-陳啟亮
委員-董崇禮
關鍵字(中) 多孔洞、可見光、空心球、對乙醯氨基酚
關鍵字(英) Mesoporous, Visible Light, Hollowspheres, paracetamol
學科別分類 學科別應用科學環境工程
中文摘要 本研究利用兩階段溶劑熱反應製備高表面積和通透性佳的多孔洞空心材料,多孔洞二氧化鈦空心球(Mesoporous Hollow TiO2 Spheres, MHTiS),用於光催化反應中,可快速、完全降解水中低濃度污染物對乙醯氨基酚。利用XRD觀察自製材料之結晶型態,發現所製備之材料為銳鈦礦二氧化鈦;FESEM觀察表面形貌,其表面成完整球形;AA分析材料之鐵含量與XPS量測表面元素組成,驗證本實驗中之鐵/鈦比;於UV-Vis實驗中可觀察到吸收光譜的紅移現象,其中以2.5wt%為最佳鐵摻雜比例,吸收波長為471.4nm,可說明所摻雜的鐵以奈米尺度均勻散佈於材料本體中;HRTEM檢視空心結構,說明材料良好的通透性;BET量測比表面積,表面積高達287.4m2/g。
自製材料MHTiS 降解對乙醯氨基酚的速率是商業二氧化鈦Degussa P-25 的4倍。經多次重複光催化實驗MHTiS 仍可維持其高活性。兩階段溶劑熱反應的簡便性與可控制性,將有利於觸媒表面修飾及改變球體大小及空心壁厚。利用自製MHTiS光催化分解對乙醯氨基酚,將有助於降低廢水處理成本,是極具發展潛力、環境友善之光觸媒材料。
英文摘要 Hollowed TiO2 microspheres (TiHS) were prepared by a two-step solvothermal process. In the first solvothermal step, the solid precursor was formed by alcohol, ethyl and glycerol,and mixed with titanium source at 110 ℃ for 4 hrs. In the second solvothermal step, it was found that the morphological integrity of the hollow microspheres could be controlled by varying the concentration of water. We obtained uniform TiHS with 1~2 μm diameter and the specific surface area is two times higher than Degussa P25 TiO2. The optical and electronic structural properties of the prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and N2 sorption isotherms (BET) at 77 K. Their morphological structure was also examined by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The significant increase of 50% in the pseudo first-order reaction rate constant (kobs) of paracetamol photodegradation was obtained as compared with the commercial Degussa P25 TiO2. The values of kobs are reproducible with TiHS, even after reused 10 times, the efficiency decreased by only 20%. The simple route to fabricate TiHS, it facilitate the development of photocatalysts for decomposition of environmental contaminants.
論文目次 摘要 I
Abstract II
目錄 V
圖目錄 VII
表目錄 X
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 研究緣起 1
1-2 研究內容與目的 4
第二章 文獻回顧 7
2.1新興汙染物 7
2.1.1藥物與個人保健用品 8
2.2 對乙醯氨基酚 10
2.2.1對乙醯氨基酚的來源與危害 12
2.2.2對乙醯氨基酚之使用現況 14
2.2.3對乙醯氨基酚對環境之影響 15
2.2二氧化鈦空心微米球的文獻回顧及合成方法 16
2.2.1二氧化鈦空心球 18
2.2.2二氧化鈦改質 22
2.2.3光催化機制 23
第三章 實驗設備及方法 26
3.1實驗藥品與設備 28
3.1.1實驗藥品 28
3.1.2實驗設備 29
3.1.3實驗儀器 30
3.2 材料製備 31
3.2.1中孔洞空心二氧化鈦空心微米球 31
3.2.2含鐵中孔洞空心二氧化鈦空心微米球 32
3.3特性分析 33
3.4光催化實驗 40
3.4.1紫外光催化實驗及其分析 40
3.4.2可見光催化實驗及其分析 41
3.5材料效能分析方法 43
第四章 結果討論 47
4.1中孔洞空心二氧化鈦空心微米球 47
4.1.1 X光粉末繞射儀鑑定(XRD) 47
4.1.2熱重分析(TGA) 51
4.1.3場發射掃描式電子顯微鏡影像(FESEM) 56
4.1.4高解析穿透式電子顯微鏡(HRTEM) 70
4.1.5氮氣等溫吸附-脫附曲線(BET) 74
4.2含鐵中孔洞空心二氧化鈦空心微米球 (FeMHTiS) 76
4.2.1 X光粉末繞射儀鑑定(XRD) 76
4.2.2原子吸收光譜(AA) 78
4.2.3熱重分析(TGA) 79
4.2.4場發射掃描式電子顯微鏡影像(FESEM) 81
4.2.5高解析穿透式電子顯微鏡(HRTEM) 88
4.2.6氮氣等溫吸附-脫附曲線(BET) 91
4.2.7紫外光-可見光吸收光譜儀(UV-vis) 94
4.2.8 X-射線光電子能譜儀(XPS) 95
4.2.9 X光吸收近邊緣結構(XANES) 97
4.3光催化分析 103
4.3.1紫外光光催化降解對乙醯氨基酚能力評估 103
4.3.2可見光光催化降解對乙醯氨基酚能力評估 105
4.3.3材料光催化能力評估多重複穩定性測試 108
第五章 結論與建議 111
5.1結論 111
5.2建議 113
參考文獻 114
附錄 123
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系統識別號 U0046-2607201422584700
論文名稱(中文) 利用廢石英砂製備中孔洞與微孔材料進行二氧化碳處理之研究
論文名稱(英文) Study on the Treatment of Carbon Dioxide by Mesoporous and Microporous Materials Prepared from Spent Quartz Sand
校院名稱 宜蘭大學
系所名稱(中) 環境工程學系
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 蘇毅騰
學號 r0124001
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2014-06-19
論文頁數 116頁
口試委員 召集委員-席行正
委員-洪桂彬
指導教授-張章堂
委員-馬志明
委員-林進榮
關鍵字(中) 二氧化碳
胺基
廢石英砂
中孔材料
關鍵字(英) Carbon dioxide
Amine functional group
Spent quartz
Mesoporous material
學科別分類 學科別應用科學環境工程
中文摘要 近年來,隨著工業的快速成長以及各項產業的崛起,使民眾的生活便利許多,但也間接的導致各種污染物的產生。其中,二氧化碳作為溫室氣體對地球暖化造成了諾大的影響,隨著交通工具的普及,二氧化碳的排放亦日漸增加,如何減緩二氧化碳上升趨勢成為現下重要的研究議題之一。
本文使用溴化銨(cetyltrimethyl, CTAB)為陽離子型表面活性劑和石英砂作為矽源合成微/介孔材料。後使用3-氨基丙基三甲氧基矽烷(3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane, APTS),乙二胺(ethylenediamine, EDA)與單乙醇胺(monoethanolamine, MEA)改質合成之微/介孔材料。微/介孔材料吸附材料經X射線螢光光譜儀(XRF)、氮氣等溫吸附/脫附儀、元素分析儀(EA)、掃描電子顯微鏡(SEM),傅立葉紅外光譜(FTIR)、熱重分析儀(TGA) 、X射線粉末衍射(XRD)和二氧化碳分析儀分析。本研究利用廢石英砂合成Q-MCM材料,後再使用APTS改質Q-MCM材料負載上胺基可得A-Q-MCM,在室溫條件下比未改質材料有更好的二氧化碳吸附能力。合成Q-MCM材料比表面積、孔隙體積和孔隙直徑分別為1028 m2 g-1、0.907 cm3 g-1和3.04 nm;在二氧化碳濃度為2000 ppm,停留時間為1.4 s,劑量為1g cm-3條件下,A-Q-MCM材料之二氧化碳吸附能力達8.52 mg g-1,通過EA測定得知A-Q-MCM之含氮量為2.74%;A-Q-MCM材料對二氧化碳吸附比較符合Freundlich 模型。而使用EDA改質商用Y型沸石得到之Zeo-EDA材料比表面積、孔隙體積和孔隙直徑分別在292-227 m2 g-1、 0.029-0.04 cm3 g-1與15-34 nm之間;而通過Langmuir模型模擬材料之二氧化碳最大吸附能力約為102 mg g-1。反應床高使用時間與貫穿時間兩種模式皆可預測良好。
英文摘要 With the rapid development of manufacture and more and more industries rise sharply in recent years, which brings convenience to people. Howeve, it also causes some environment problems. Over the past decades, large emissions of atmospheric carbon dioxide have become a global environmental issue. It is highly desired to reduce the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere.
Among the various materials, mesoporous MCM-41was considered as the good adsorbent to CO2. In our study, Mesoporous MCM-41(Q-MCM) was synthesized as cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was used as a cationic surfactant and spent quartz sand was used as the silica source. The amine functionalized material (A-Q-MCM) was also synthesized. The materials were then characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption, elemental analysis (EA), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In this study A-Q-MCM exhibited a higher uptake of CO2 at room temperature compared with Q-MCM. The surface area, pore volume and pore diameter of A-Q-MCM were found to be as high as 1028 m2 g-1, 0.907 cm3 g-1 and 3.04 nm, respectively. Under the condition where the carbon dioxide concentration is 2000 ppm, retention time is 50 cc min-1 and the dosage is 1 g cm-3, the mean adsorption capacity of carbon dioxide onto A-Q-MCM was about 8.2 mg g-1 , the nitrogen content of A-Q-MCM was 2.74%. The adsorption equilibrium was well modeled by using Freundlich isotherm. To make a comparison, The Zeolite-Y functionalized by EDA was also synthesized. The surface area, pore volume and pore diameter of Zeo-EDA were found to be between 292-227 m2 g-1, 0.029-0.04 cm3 g-1,15-34 nm, respectively. The maximum capacity of Zeo-EDA was calculated through Langmuir model and the capacity is about 102 mg g-1.
論文目次 目錄
摘要 I
Abstract III
圖目錄 IX
表目錄 XII
第一章 前言 1
1-1 研究緣起 1
1-2 研究目的 2
1-3 研究內容 4
第二章 文獻回顧 7
2-1背景 7
2-2中孔洞材料簡介 23
2-2-1 中孔洞材料之發展 23
2-2-2 MCM-41製備方法 26
2-2-3中孔洞材料之應用 29
2-3微孔洞材料沸石簡介 30
2-3-1 Y型沸石 32
2-3-2 MFI 沸石 33
2-3-3 BEA沸石 35
2-3-4 ZSM-5沸石 36
2-4 利用不同合成方式控制沸石形貌 37
2-5 高溫吸附材料 38
第三章 實驗方法 39
3-1 實驗藥品及研究設備 39
3-1-1 實驗藥品 39
3-1-2 研究設備 41
3-1-3 實驗儀器 42
3-2 實驗步驟與合成方法 43
3-3 微/中孔洞材料特性分析 45
3-4 實驗裝置與實驗方法 47
3-5 等溫吸附模式 50
3-5-1 Freundlich吸附理論 50
3-5-2 Langmuir吸附理論 51
3-5-3 熱力學分析 53
3-6動力學分析 54
3-6-1 擬一階動力學模型 54
3-6-2 擬二階動力學模型 55
3-6-3 阿瑞尼斯模型 56
3-7吸附模式模擬 57
3-7-1吸附床使用時間模型 57
3-7-2貫穿時間模型 58
第四章 結果與討論 60
4-1材料特性分析結果 60
4-1-1 廢石英砂之成分分析結果 60
4-1-2氮氣等溫吸附/脫附儀分析結果 61
4-1-3 X-ray粉末繞射儀分析結果 66
4-1-4傅立葉紅外線吸收光譜儀分析結果 69
4-1-5 熱重分析儀分析結果 71
4-1-6 掃描式電子顯微鏡分析結果 74
4-2 二氧化碳吸附測試結果 76
4-2-1 使用中孔洞MCM材料吸附二氧化碳測定結果 77
4-2-2使用Zeo-EDA材料吸附二氧化碳測定結果 81
4-3 吸附模式模擬結果 87
4-3-1 等溫吸附模型建製結果 87
4-3-2動力學分析結果 91
4-3-3 吸附模式模擬結果 92
第五章 結論與建議 96
5-1結論 96
5-1-1材料特性分析結果 96
5-1-2材料性能評估結果 98
5-1-3材料吸附模式模擬結果 99
5-2建議 100
參考文獻 102
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系統識別號 U0046-2701201413500000
論文名稱(中文) 攜帶型葉綠素螢光影像作物生理障礙檢測系統之研製
論文名稱(英文) Development of a Portable Detection System for Physiological Disease of Crop Using Chlorophyll Fluorescence Image
校院名稱 宜蘭大學
系所名稱(中) 生物機電工程學系
學年度 102
學期 1
出版年 102
研究生(中文) 徐偉智
學號 r0031014
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2013-07-26
論文頁數 78頁
口試委員 指導教授-邱奕志
委員-方煒
委員-艾群
委員-程安邦
委員-張允瓊
關鍵字(中) 葉綠素
螢光
影像檢測
草莓
種苗
關鍵字(英) Chlorophyll
Fluorescence
Imaging detection
Strawberries
Seedling
學科別分類 學科別生物資源生物學
中文摘要 本論文研究目的旨在建立一套攜帶型葉綠素螢光影像檢測系統,可在肉眼觀測病斑前,提早偵測到植物葉片罹病之資訊。本研究進行作物螢光特性實驗、高溫逆境病斑誘發試驗以及戶外檢測試驗,以完成攜帶型葉綠素螢光影像檢測系統之建立。本研究試驗主要對象為豐香草莓苗,苗齡15天。螢光特性試驗結果顯示,豐香草莓苗健康與病害之激發光波長落於460 nm,放射光波長為680 nm,其激發光相對強點之光譜範圍皆落於420 nm~490 nm,放射光相對強點之光譜範圍皆落於670 nm~690 nm之間。高溫逆境實驗中,將實驗組之草莓苗放入38℃/30℃(日/夜),濕度80%之生長箱中,10株草莓苗中,有5株誘導病斑成功,並利用研製之攜帶型葉綠素螢光影像檢測系統拍攝其結果,以其中1株說明,肉眼發現病斑時間約處於112小時~128小時之間,研製之攜帶型葉綠素螢光影像檢測系統可於96小時~112小時,即可看見病斑影像,相當於提早16小時即可發現病斑。
本研究透過侵蝕、膨脹、斷開、高斯模糊、查表法、邊緣偵測、二值化、去除大小物件等影像處理流程,成功去除傳統為了螢光影像清晰以及提升病斑辨識成功率之暗處理時間。未暗處理下,透過本系統兩種病斑辨識影像處理,其成功率分別為70 %與85 %,精準度分別為28.6 %與76.5 %。戶外試驗部分,可成功進行病斑偵測,成功率為73.3 %,精準度為16.6 %。本研究成功建立一套攜帶型葉綠素螢光影像檢測系統,可提早發現植株病斑,並且能夠於戶外進行檢測。
英文摘要 This objective of this research was to establish a portable chlorophyll fluorescence imaging detection system, which could detect the information for the diseased leaf earlier than the naked eyes. In this study, by using the crop fluorescence characteristic experiments, high-temperature stress experiments and outdoor experiments to establish a portable chlorophyll fluorescence imaging detection system efficacy. The main object of the research trial was the Toyonoka Strawberry seedling and it was 15 days old. The test results for fluorescence characteristic shown the excitation wavelength of the health and disease for the Toyonoka Strawberry seedling was 460 nm, the emission wavelength was 680 nm, the spectral range of relative strengths excitation was between 420 nm ~ 490 nm, the spectral range of relative strengths emitted light was between 670 nm ~ 690 nm. In the high-temperature stress experiments, the experimental group, 10 Strawberry seedling, there were five successful inductions of disease spot, and taking one of the shooting results from the portable chlorophyll fluorescence imaging detection system. During one test, the naked eye found disease spot after 112 hours to 128 hours, the detection system found the spots in 96 hours to 112 hours, 16 hours earlier than the naked eye.
In this study, by using the erosion, dilation, proper open, Gaussian Blur, Look-up table, edge detection, local threshold and remove the size of the object, successful removal dark treatment which in order to enhance fluorescent image clarity and improve the success rate of the disease spot recognition processing time, under the processing without the dark treatment, there are two kinds of portable chlorophyll fluorescence imaging detection system for the disease spots, the success rates were 70% and 85%, the accuracy rates were 28.6% and 76.5% respectively. In an outdoor experiment, the success rate was 73.3%, and accuracy was 16.6%. This study successfully established a portable chlorophyll fluorescence imaging detection system, which can find disease spot early and detect it at outdoor.
論文目次 摘要 I
Abstract II
誌謝 III
目錄 IV
圖目錄 VI
表目錄 VIII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1前言 1
1.2研究目的 2
第二章 文獻探討 3
2.1作物病害致病之逆境因子 3
2.1.1非生物逆境 3
2.1.2生物逆境 4
2.2葉綠素螢光技術原理與應用 6
2.2.1葉綠素螢光產生之原理 6
2.2.2葉綠素螢光技術之應用 8
2.3葉綠素螢光影像應用於植物不同逆境因子上之檢測 10
2.4攜帶型葉綠素螢光影像檢測系統之設計原理 16
第三章 攜帶型葉綠素螢光影像檢測系統之研製 19
3.1攜帶型葉綠素螢光影像檢測系統之設計背景 19
3.2攜帶型葉綠素螢光影像檢測系統之設計 19
3.2.1激發光系統 22
3.2.2螢光影像擷取系統 25
3.2.3控制與分析系統 27
3.3攜帶型葉綠素螢光影像檢測系統之建立 30
第四章 材料與方法 33
4.1試驗材料 33
4.2試驗相關儀器描述 33
4.3試驗方法 34
4.3.1作物種苗之螢光特性試驗 34
4.3.2激發光源選擇方法 34
4.3.3放射光源擷取濾鏡選擇方法 34
4.3.4螢光影像擷取距離校正試驗 35
4.3.5甘藍種苗於高溫逆境下螢光量子產量試驗 35
4.3.6草莓種苗於高溫逆境下螢光量子產量試驗 36
4.3.7甘藍種苗以高溫逆境產生病害試驗 36
4.3.8草莓種苗以高溫逆境產生病害試驗 36
4.3.9病害斑點辨識影像處理方法試驗 37
4.3.10病害斑點面積實際大小校正試驗 39
4.3.11攜帶型葉綠素螢光影像檢測系統之性能試驗 40
4.3.12攜帶型葉綠素螢光影像檢測系統之戶外試驗 40
第五章 結果與討論 41
5.1作物種苗之螢光特性試驗分析與探討 41
5.2激發光源波長範圍選擇結果與分析 46
5.3放射光源擷取濾鏡波長範圍選擇結果與探討 46
5.4螢光影像擷取距離校正試驗結果與分析 47
5.5甘藍種苗於高溫逆境下螢光量子產量試驗分析與探討 48
5.6草莓種苗於高溫逆境下螢光量子產量試驗分析與探討 51
5.7甘藍種苗以高溫逆境產生病害試驗結果與分析 53
5.8草莓種苗以高溫逆境產生病害試驗結果與分析 56
5.9病害辨識影像處理方法試驗結果與分析 59
5.10病害斑點面積實際大小校正試驗結果與分析 60
5.11攜帶型葉綠素螢光影像檢測系統之性能試驗結果與分析 61
5.12攜帶型葉綠素螢光影像檢測系統實際作業情形 64
5.13攜帶型葉綠素螢光影像檢測系統之戶外試驗結果與分析 66
第六章 結論 69
第七章 建議 70
第八章 參考文獻 71
附錄 75
附錄A、攜帶型葉綠素螢光影線檢測系統程式 75
附錄B、甘藍種苗葉綠素螢光影像與一般CCD影像全圖 77
附錄C、草莓種苗葉綠素螢光影像與實際影像全圖 78
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系統識別號 U0046-2708201413121000
論文名稱(中文) 台灣蜂蜜抑菌活性初探
論文名稱(英文) A Preliminary Investigation on the Antimicrobial Activity of Honey in Taiwan
校院名稱 宜蘭大學
系所名稱(中) 生物技術與動物科學系
系所名稱(英)
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 陳容蓉
學號 r0033002
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2014-07-31
論文頁數 45頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳裕文
召集委員-何鎧光
委員-楊恩誠 
委員-杜武俊
關鍵字(中) 蜂蜜
抑菌活性
孔洞擴散法
最低抑菌濃度
關鍵字(英) Honey
Antibacterial activity
Agar well diffusion
96-well minimum inhibitory concentration
學科別分類 學科別生物資源生物學
中文摘要 隨著抗藥性菌株的流行,蜂蜜的抑菌活性越來越受到重視,且導致抑菌蜂蜜的新研究增加。本實驗藉由探討23件台灣蜂蜜樣品的抑菌活性、儲放條件及添加台灣綠蜂膠對蜂蜜抑菌力的影響,以評估其作為醫藥用蜂蜜的潛力。抑菌試驗採用孔洞擴散法 (agar well diffusion) 與 96孔盤最低抑菌濃度試驗 (96-well minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC)以測試台灣蜂蜜對金黃色葡萄球菌 (Staphylococcus aureus)、枯草芽孢桿菌(Bacillus subtilis)、大腸桿菌 (Escherichia coli) 及綠膿桿菌 (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) 的抑菌活性,並選用麥蘆卡蜂蜜與兩種高果糖漿 (high-fructose syrup, HFS) 做為對照。結果顯示:台灣蜂蜜對4種測試菌株皆有良好的抑菌活性,其中以對 S. aureus 的抑菌效果最佳;就蜜源種類而言,台灣龍眼蜜的抑菌力與麥蘆卡蜂蜜相當,具有開發為藥用蜂蜜的潛力。除龍眼蜜外,台灣百花蜜也有良好的抑菌效果佳,台灣荔枝蜜較弱,高果糖漿則不具抑菌效果。儲放試驗方面選用台灣龍眼蜜與宜大 10 月百花蜜分別儲放在 40°C與 60°C, 1 d~28 d 後進行抑菌活性及澱粉酶活性的測試;結果顯示,澱粉酶活性於兩種儲放溫度均呈現減退的現象,但抑菌活性在40°C的變化不明顯,60°C則呈現快速減退的現象,特別值得注意的是儲放10年以上的蜂蜜仍具有抑菌能力。最後於台灣龍眼蜜分別添加 12 ppm 與 120 ppm的台灣綠蜂膠萃取物進行MIC測試。添加台灣綠蜂膠萃取物於蜂蜜有助於蜂蜜對革蘭氏陽性菌的抑菌活性提升,其添加濃度為120 ppm時有最佳的抑菌效果,而蜂膠與蜂蜜間是否存在協同作用則值得更進一步仔細探討。
英文摘要 With the rise in prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, honey is increasingly valued for its antibacterial activity, and has led to more and more new research for antimicrobial honeys. This study was undertaken to investigate the potential of Taiwan honey as Medihoney, by assess its antimicrobial activity, storage at different temperatures and times, and the influence of add Taiwan green propolis extracts (TGP) in honey. Tested an agar well diffusion assay and a 96-well minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Manuka honey and two kind of High-fructose syrup (HFS) was used for comparative purposes. In storage test, Taiwan longan honey and NIU multiflora honey (Oct. 2013) were storage in 1-28 d at 40°C and 60°C then tested the antimicrobial activity, moisture and diastase activity. Use 96-well MIC to tested Taiwan london honey that added 12 ppm and 120 ppm TGP. The results showed that: It was effective for Taiwan honey against all four tested bacteria strains. S. aureus was especially the most effective, and the antibacterial efficacy of Award longan honey (2013) was similar with Comvita maunka UMF® honey that had the potential to develop as Medihoney. Except Award longan honey, the antibacterial efficacy of Multiflora honey was best even better than Longan honey, and was poor of Litchi honey. The most interesting thing is honey still has antimicrobial efficacy even that had storage more than 10 years. The antimicrobial activity becomes more and more ineffective after honey storage, especially in 60°C. Adding TGP can increase the antibacterial activity of honey against gram-positive bacteria, and the best concentration is 120 ppm, and whether there is a synergistic effect between propolis and honey is worth further careful discussion.
論文目次 壹、前言 1
貳、往昔研究 3
一、蜂蜜 3
二、蜂蜜的組成與特性 3
1.蜂蜜的成分 3
2.蜂蜜的特性 4
三、蜂蜜的藥理效用 5
1.抗菌作用 5
2.營養補給作用 7
3.促進傷口癒合作用 7
4.調整胃腸道疾病作用 7
四、蜂蜜用於醫療的歷史與優點 7
五、藥用蜂蜜的經濟價值 8
六、蜂膠 9
1.蜂膠的性質與組成 9
2.台灣綠蜂膠 10
參、不同台灣產蜂蜜的抑菌活性 11
一、材料與方法 11
1.蜂蜜樣品的搜集與儲放 11
2.微生物來源與培養條件 11
3.營養基平板的製作 12
4.蜂蜜稀釋液的製作 12
5.蜂蜜水活性 (water activity, Aw) 12
6.洞擴散試驗 12
7.最小抑菌濃度試驗 13
二、結果與討論 13
1.蜂蜜含水量與水活性 13
2.抑菌圈活性 13
3. 最小抑菌濃度 (MIC) 14
肆、儲放對蜂蜜抑菌能力的影響 15
一、材料與方法 15
1.蜂蜜樣品的儲放 15
2.蜂蜜稀釋液的製作 15
3.蜂蜜含水量的變化 15
4.抗微生物活性 15
5.澱粉酶活性 (Schade unit)測驗 15
二、結果與討論 16
伍、添加台灣綠蜂膠對蜂蜜抑菌活性的影響 18
一、材料與方法 18
1.樣品的搜集與儲放 18
2.蜂蜜稀釋液的製作 18
3.抗微生物活性 18
二、結果與討論 18
添加不同濃度TGP對蜂蜜抑菌活性的影響 18
陸、結論 20
柒、參考文獻 21
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系統識別號 U0046-2708201416274500
論文名稱(中文) 應用HSPF模式評估河川流量與懸浮固體物之特性-以馬太鞍溪為例
論文名稱(英文) Applying the HSPF Model to Evaluate Characteristics of Flow and Suspended Solids in River-A Case Study on Ma-Tai-An River
校院名稱 宜蘭大學
系所名稱(中) 環境工程學系
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 林庭毅
學號 r0124010
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2014-06-20
論文頁數 99頁
口試委員 指導教授-江漢全
委員-張益誠
委員-周錦東
委員-許文昌
委員-蘇銘千
關鍵字(中) 非點源污染
水質模式
BASINS
HSPF
情境模擬
關鍵字(英) nonpoint source pollution
BASINS/HSPF
scenario simulation
學科別分類 學科別應用科學環境工程
中文摘要 「河川」是人類賴以維生的主要水資源,而花蓮縣境內的河川輸砂量問題嚴重,其中,花蓮溪又為全縣輸砂量最高的河川,本研究選擇花蓮溪的主要支流馬太鞍溪為研究區域,使用美國環保署(USEPA)所發展出的BASINS(Better Assessment Science Integrating point and Non-point Sources)軟體內的HSPF(Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran)模式,進行非點源污染的分析,以模擬馬太鞍溪的水文與水質特性,並經過率定與驗證的過程,使模式模擬結果具有其可信度,而模擬結果顯示馬太鞍溪2012年的洪峰流量(464.1CMS)為平均流量(29.5CMS)的16倍,最大SS濃度(2980 mg/L)為平均SS濃度 (171 mg/L)之17倍。
此外,透過集水區內土地利用的調查結果,顯示以森林地的比例最多,佔91.7%,最少則為城市地區,僅占0.01%,表示河川的水文水質變化主要受天然因素所影響,而在氣象資料分析的部分,可瞭解集水區內的降雨主要受到颱風所影響,當降雨量上升,河川之流量與SS濃度則相對增加。本研究另應用情境模擬,調整集水區內的土地利用比例,使用HSPF模式模擬流量與SS濃度的變化情形,顯示當森林地的比例增加,可有效減緩集水區內的地表逕流量,並防止土壤流失,以減少非點源污染的污染量,有助於對花蓮溪的河川管理及永續經營。
英文摘要 Rivers which humans depend for subsistence are the primary source of water. In Hualien country, sediment load is a serious problem especially in Hualien River.In this study, we focus on predicting the hydrology and water quality in Ma-Tai-An River which is the primary tributary of Hualien River. Using the USEPA’s BASINS-HSPF model which was calibrated and validated with available experimental data, we analyze nonpoint source pollution and simulate characteristics of hydrologic and water quality.
The results show that the maximum flow is 16 times more than the average and the maximum suspended solid is 17 times more than the average in 2012. In addition, we found the maximum proportion of the watershed is forest accounting for 91.7% and the minimum proportion of it is urban accounting for only 0.01% through the survey results of landuse. Therefore, we speculate the river's flow and water quality were mainly affected by natural factors.In the part of meteorological data, we also noticed that the rainfall was mainly affected by the typhoon. When the rainfall was arising, the flow and suspended solids concentration were also relatively increasing. Another application in this research is using scenario simulation which adjusts the ratio of watershed’s landuse and uses HSPF model to simulate flow and suspended solids concentration in different conditions. It concluded that increasing forest land can effectively reduce surface runoff, soil erosion and nonpoint source pollution. As a result, increasing forest is beneficial to the Hualien Riveron management and sustainable development.

論文目次 目錄
中文摘要 I
目錄 III
圖目錄 IV
表目錄 V
第一章 前言 1-1
1-1 研究緣起 1-1
1-2 研究目的 1-2
1-3 研究流程 1-2
第二章 文獻回顧 2-1
2-1 非點源污染 2-1
2-2 水質模式評選 2-6
2-3 地理資訊系統 2-8
2-4 花蓮地區之環境背景 2-10
第三章 研究方法 3-1
3-1 模式介紹 3-1
3-2 模式參數的率定與驗證 3-21
3-3 情境模擬分析 3-22
第四章 結果與討論 4-1
4-1研究區域調查結果 4-1
4-2 HSPF模式參數的率定及驗證 4-11
4-3 情境模擬分析結果 4-20
第五章 結論與建議 5-1
5-1 結論 5-1
5-2 建議 5-2
參考文獻
附錄一、HSPF模式所需之氣象資料
附錄二、土壤實驗之分析方法

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系統識別號 U0046-2708201419340100
論文名稱(中文) 熱電漿重組二氧化碳與生質焦油-以甲苯模擬為例
論文名稱(英文) Thermal Plasma Reforming of CO2 and Biomass Tar – Toluene as a Model Compound
校院名稱 宜蘭大學
系所名稱(中) 環境工程學系
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 郭芳汝
學號 r0124015
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2014-07-29
論文頁數 204頁
口試委員 指導教授-謝哲隆
委員-張慶源
委員-李元陞
委員-吳耿東
委員-陳奕宏
關鍵字(中) 重組、熱電漿
甲苯
二氧化碳
生質焦油
合成氣
關鍵字(英) reforming, thermal plasma
toluene
carbon dioxide
biomass tar
syngas
學科別分類 學科別應用科學環境工程
中文摘要 合成氣(CO+H2)為一氧化碳及氫氣之混合氣體,是一種化學合成的重要中間產物,對環境來說是一種乾淨的燃料。合成氣可從煤礦、石油、天然氣、生質物甚至是有機廢棄物製造產生。本研究探討將氣化或裂解生質物後所產生的焦油(以甲苯(C7H8)做為模型產物)與二氧化碳(CO2)進行熱電漿重組以產製合成氣。重組技術對於減少石油資源的使用量有迅速發展的趨勢,且強調於減緩溫室氣體之環境狀況。而電漿技術應用於重組焦油被認為是一個有潛力的技術,其中,焦油結合二氧化碳重組變得更有吸引力是因為其不僅減少了焦油的困擾,同時還降低了二氧化碳的濃度。在本研究中使用熱電漿反應器(電漿火炬)重組甲苯以及二氧化碳,操作條件探討在不同甲苯進流濃度(1639- 2670 ppmv)、C7H8與CO2比例(1/0、1/13、1/20、1/37)、反應溫度(423、473、573、623K)、蒸汽流率(0.75、1.5、3 mL/min)及反應時間(0、5、10、20、30、40 min)下對C7H8與CO2轉換率(conversion)、CO與H2選擇率(selectivity)和CO及H2產氣濃度之影響。
主要氣體產物為CO及H2,由GC/TCD來分析,在相同時間下,副產物則由GC/MS分析。本研究第一部份為先期試驗,在N2 = 7 L/min進流下,其影響結果可得知,甲苯最高轉換率為88.8%。將N2 由7 L/min升至9 L/min時,C7H8轉換率可由68.3%大幅升至92.9%。主要原因可能因N2流量高時,電漿甲苯混合較均勻,同時初始濃度較低導致。
第二部份不同C7H8/CO2配比結果顯示,固定CO2進流率下,反應溫度越高其轉換率、選擇率以及產氣濃度皆有顯著上升趨勢。在C7H8/CO2配比為1/58時有最佳的效果。C7H8及CO2最高轉換率分別為95.5%及77.9%;CO及H2最高選擇率分別為135.7%及84.4%;CO及H2產氣濃度為42,102 ppmv及18,464 ppmv。因此可知,乾式重組下最佳操作條件為673K及C7H8/CO2 = 1/58。
第三部分添加蒸汽後,其結果顯示蒸汽進流率越高,C7H8轉換率及H2選擇率也大幅提升,H2產氣濃度提高了約2倍,但反觀CO2轉換率及CO產氣濃度卻沒有明顯提升,而CO選擇率則稍微下降。C7H8轉換率及H2選擇率最高分別為98.2 %以及263.7%。如與無蒸汽下相比,C7H8轉換率從95.5%升至98.4%,更與完全無CO2及H2O下相比,其C7H8轉換率由91.4%大幅升至98.4%。因此添加水氣後,水發生裂解並參與重組反應。
H2產氣濃度超過100.0%及濃度大幅增加的原因,推測發生蒸汽重組反應(C7H8 + 14H2O → 7CO2 + 18H2)及碳氣化反應(C + H2O → CO + H2)。另外推測因添加蒸汽同時會與產氣的CO發生反應(CO + H2O → CO2 + H2),使得CO2濃度並沒有明顯下降。鑒於此結果本研究之最適化條件為673K、C7H8/CO2 = 1/58及H2O flow rate = 3 mL/min。
在固體產物分析部分,元素及熱值分析結果在673K、C7H8/CO2 =1/58下產出之碳渣有最小C% (25.1%)與最小平均熱值(5234 kcal/kg),可推測高溫下有利於乾式重組反應的進行並協助甲苯碳鏈破壞成CO及H2 ,亦可驗證出碳渣的C%愈少其熱值愈低,添加CO2後不僅可增加轉換率,更可使甲苯乾式重組反應進行得更徹底。從SEM圖可得知,在不同溫度及添加不同濃度的氣化劑時,其對產出的碳渣並無太大的影響,均呈現接近奈米等級圓球狀。但高溫(673K)、高CO2進流(240 mL/min)及H2O下可促進重組反應的完全並解決積碳問題。
整體研究結果顯示,進一步再添加蒸汽提供更多H及O源,除了大幅提高H2產出濃度外,更可去除反應後所產生的積碳及沉灰問題。因此本研究提出之電漿乾/濕式重組焦油技術可解決傳統熱處理所衍生的問題。
英文摘要 Synthesis gas (or “syngas”), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, is an important intermediate for various synthesizing chemicals and environmentally clean fuels. Synthesis gas can be produced from coal, petroleum coke, natural gas, biomass and even from organic wastes. Thermal plasma reforming of CO2 and toluene as a model compound of gasification or pyrolysis tar to produce syngas was investigated in this study. Reforming is of rapid growing interest for reasons of the continuous decrease of petroleum resources and the emphasis on the environmental situation for greenhouse gas mitigation. Plasma technology is considered to be one of potential ways for tar (taking toluene (C7H8) as model material) and CO2 reforming. Tar and CO2 reforming becomes more attractive because it not only lessens tar consumption but also makes use of carbon dioxide. In this study, a thermal plasma reactor (thermal plasma) was used for the reforming of toluene and CO2 at the different ratios (1/0, 1/13, 1/20, 1/37) of C7H8/CO2, initial concentrations of toluene (1639-2670 ppmv), temperatures (423, 473, 573, 673 K), H2O flow rates (0.75, 1.5, 3 mL/min) and reaction times (0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40). The major yields of CO and H2 were also addressed and analyzed using GC-TCD, at the same time, the types of by-product were analyzed using GC/MS. In the first tested experiment, the highest toluene conversion was 88.8% when the N2 flow rate at 7 L/min. Next, toluene conversion increased from 68.3% to 92.9% widely when the N2 flow rate of 7 L/min rose to 9 L/min. The main reason may be due to the N2 at higher flow rate, and the plasma with toluene was well mixed while let to low initial concentration of toluene.
In the second part, the different ratio of C7H8/CO2 while at constant flow of CO2 showed that the temperature increased, the conversion, selectivity and concentration of products rose significantly. The result showed that the C7H8/CO2 ratio of 1/58 appearred the highest effect on the indexes. The highest conversions of C7H8 and CO2 were 95.5% and 77.9%, respectively. The selectivities of CO and H2 were 135.7% and 84.4%; meanwhile, the CO and H2 concentrations were 42,102 and 18,464 ppmv, respectively. From the result, the temperature of 673K and the C7H8/CO2 ratio of 1/58 were the optimum operational conditions in dry reforming situation.
After the steam injecting coupled with the C7H8 and CO2 flows at the advanced steps, the results showed that at the increase of the steam flow rate, the C7H8 conversion and H2 selectivity also increased widely, at the same time, the H2 concentration increased more than two times. However, on the contrary, the CO2 conversion and CO concentration did not increase obviously, while CO selectivity also decreased. At this condition, the highest conversion of C7H8 and selectivity of H2 were 98.2% and 263.7%, respectively. As it was compared to the situation without steam input, C7H8 conversion increased from 95.5% to 98.4%, and then it was fuether compared to those without CO2 and steam flows, C7H8 conversion increased from 91.4% to 98.4% apperantly. Therefore, water spillted to participate the pyrolysis and gasification reactions obviously occurred after the addition of steam.
The reasons about the H2 concentration over 100% can be contributed to the reaction of steam reforming (C7H8 + 14H2O → 7CO2 + 18H2) and water-gas shift reaction (C + H2O → CO + H2). Besides, the injection of the steam will occurre to let the H2O to react with CO (CO + H2O → CO2 + H2), while it is responsible to the stability of CO2 concentration without decrease. In accordance with the result, the optimum operating parameters were 673K, C7H8/CO2 of 1/58 and H2O flow rate of 3 mL/min in this study.
In the solid products analyses, the results of the element and heating value analysis showed that the residue displaced the lowest C% (25.1%) and average heating value (5234 kcal/kg) was at the temperature of 673K and C7H8/CO2 molar ratio of 1/58. It appears that high temperature is beneficial to dry reforming and it also results in the broken of carbon bond of toluene and produces to the products of CO and H2. The evidence of the fewer C% make the lower heating value is addressed, as well as, the injection of steam not only increase the conversion of CO2 but also make the dry reforming of toluene completely. From the SEM photos, the residues were not affected obviously at different temperatures and agents of CO2, furthermore, the shape of residues displayed spherical types near nanometer scale. However, it is clear that high temperature (673K) and high CO2 flow rate (240 mL/min) with steam will over come the problem of corbon deposition.
In the conclusion, this study proves that steam input will provide more H and O, and it not only enhances the production of H2 but also removes the deposited corbon and ash from reaction. Therefore, this study presents that the technology of plasma dry/steam reforming of tar will solve the problems from the traditional thermal technology.
論文目次 摘要........................................................I
ABSTRACT...................................................IV
目錄......................................................VII
圖目錄.....................................................XI
表目錄...................................................XVII
第一章 前言.................................................1
1.1 研究緣起................................................1
1.2 研究目的................................................5
第二章 文獻回顧.............................................6
2.1 生質能與生物精煉........................................6
2.1.1 生質能................................................6
2.1.2 生物精煉.............................................11
2.2 國內生質能源發展技術概況...............................14
2.2.1 固態廢棄物衍生燃料(RDF)..............................18
2.2.2 氫能製造技術.........................................20
2.2.3 生質能熱電系統技術...................................21
2.2.4 熱裂解(pyrolysis)技術................................23
2.2.5 氣化(gasification)技術...............................25
2.2.6 燃燒(combustion)技術.................................29
2.2.7 合成氣之應用.........................................31
2.2.7.1 生質物氣化合成氣製備生質原油(GTL)..................34
2.3熱處理技術與焦油之生成..................................36
2.3.1焦油來源與定義........................................36
2.3.2焦油組成及物化特性....................................41
2.4.3焦油分類..............................................43
2.3.4焦油的分析............................................47
2.3.5焦油模擬成分..........................................49
2.4 電漿...................................................51
2.4.1 電漿原理.............................................52
2.4.2 電漿種類.............................................54
2.4.3 轉化技術之反應機制...................................56
2.5重組技術發展現況........................................60
2.5.1電漿重組技術..........................................60
2.5.2 乾式重組技術.........................................62
2.5.3 濕式重組技術.........................................63
2.5.4觸媒重組技術..........................................65
第三章 研究方法............................................68
3.1 研究流程圖.............................................68
3.2 電漿火炬系統與操作.....................................70
3.2.1 電漿火炬系統.........................................70
3.2.2 電漿火炬示意圖.......................................74
3.2.3 實驗操作條件.........................................76
3.2.4 電漿熱裂解操作步驟...................................77
3.2.4.1電漿降解甲苯實驗步驟................................77
3.2.4.2電漿甲苯/CO2乾式重組實驗步驟........................77
3.2.4.3電漿甲苯蒸汽/CO2乾濕式重組實驗步驟..................78
3.3 氣體產物分析與計算.....................................79
3.3.1 氣相層析儀-熱導偵測器(GC-TCD)........................79
3.3.2氣相層析質譜儀-火焰離子偵測器(GC-MS)..................82
3.3.3廢氣分析儀............................................85
3.3.4 計算.................................................88
3.4 固體產物分析...........................................89
3.4.1 元素分析.............................................89
3.4.2 熱值分析(HHV)........................................90
3.4.3 掃描式電子顯微鏡分析.................................92
3.4.4比表面積測定分析......................................93
第四章 結果與討論..........................................94
4.1 電漿系統穩定性操作.....................................94
4.1.1 電漿重組穩定時間測試.................................94
4.2甲苯初始濃度及不同反應溫度對電漿重組之影響..............96
4.2.1 單獨甲苯於不同反應溫度下對電漿重組之影響.............96
4.3 不同配比下對甲苯電漿乾式重組之影響.....................98
4.3.1溫度為523K下不同配比對乾式重組之影響..................99
4.3.2溫度為573K下不同配比對電漿乾式重組之影響.............109
4.3.3溫度為673K下不同配比對電漿乾式重組之影響.............119
4.4反應溫度對固定進流配比下電漿乾式重組之影響.............129
4.4.1電漿降解甲苯(配比1/0)於不同反應溫度下之影響..........129
4.4.2固定配比為1/13下反應溫度對電漿乾式重組之影響.........134
4.4.3固定配比為1/20下反應溫度對電漿乾式重組之影響.........143
4.4.4固定配比為1/58下反應溫度對電漿乾式重組之影響.........152
4.5 固定CO2配比下蒸汽對電漿濕式重組之影響.................161
4.6電漿降解及乾式重組後碳渣特性分析.......................171
4.6.1 元素分析............................................171
4.6.2 熱值分析(HHV).......................................173
4.6.3掃描式電子顯微鏡分析.................................175
4.6.4比表面積分析.........................................176
4.7綜合討論...............................................180
第五章 結論與建議.........................................190
5.1 結論..................................................190
5.2 建議..................................................193
第六章 參考文獻...........................................194
附錄A.....................................................202
A.1調整N2流量對電漿乾式重組之影響.........................202

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系統識別號 U0046-3007201415463300
論文名稱(中文) Cyt b、SRY 及 MC1R 基因之多型性與台灣黑豬種原及毛色之關係
論文名稱(英文) The polymorphism in cytochrome b, SRY and MC1R gene related with parental breed and coat colors in Taiwan black pigs
校院名稱 宜蘭大學
系所名稱(中) 生物技術與動物科學系
系所名稱(英)
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 吳育槿
學號 r0133034
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2014-06-30
論文頁數 116頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳銘正
召集委員-李賢雄
委員-陳威戎
委員-胡怡浩
委員-劉秀洲
關鍵字(中) 黑豬
種原
毛色
關鍵字(英) black pig
parental breed
coat color
學科別分類 學科別生物資源生物學
中文摘要 台灣黑豬長期與其他豬種配種以增加生長速度,造成黑豬種原與毛色遺傳的不穩定,有時會生出紅棕色之肉豬。一般常被用於研究毛色與種原之相關基因有: 粒線體細胞色素 b 基因、Y 染色體之SRY基因及位於豬第六號染色體上之黑色素接受體 (Melanocortin 1 receptor, MC1R) 基因。本研究之目的乃應用 PCR-RFLP、PCR-HRM 與 PCR-SSCP 檢測細胞色素 b、SRY 與 MC1R 基因之 SNP,建立黑豬種原標幟與毛色基因之檢測技術,並調查台灣各地區超級市場及傳統市場之黑豬肉與豬場飼養黑豬毛色 MC1R 基因與種原標幟之型態與分布。本研究發現黑豬 MC1R 基因 exon 1 具有 G727A 與 G729A 之多型性,且 G727A 可以做為區別黑色與棕色之遺傳標幟。在超級市場、肉攤及豬場黑豬樣品在 G727A 之 GG、 GA 與 AA之基因型頻率分別為 0.15、0.85、0 與 0.34、0.66、0及 0.73、0.27、0,A之對偶基因頻率分別為 0.43、0.33與0.13。另外,在 G729A 位置 GG、 GA 與 AA基因型頻率分別為 0.92、 0.04、 0 .04與 0.61、0.39、0 及 0.69、0.15、0.15, A之對偶基因頻率分別為 0.06 與 0.20 及 0.23。另外檢測粒線體細胞色素 b 基因在 15036 (T/C)、15038 (G/A)、15045 (C/T) 與 15046 (G/A) SNP 所組合成歐洲型 (E=TGCG) 或亞洲型 (A=CATA) 之結果顯示超級市場的黑豬肉有 19 件為歐洲型,8 件為亞洲型;傳統市場者有 46 件歐洲型,28 件為亞洲型;豬場的黑豬有 19 件為歐洲型,7 件為亞洲型,而檢測 SRY 基因在 c.135 (C/G)、c.593 (G/C) 與 c.637 (G/C) SNP 組合成歐洲型 (E=CGG) 或中國型 (C=GGC) 之結果顯示在超級市場與傳統市場收集之 101 件黑豬肉樣品都被歸類為歐洲型,然而從豬場收集之 6 頭黑色公豬被歸類成歐洲型。另外 2 頭來自屏東豬場之黑色公豬,檢測之單倍型與桃園豬相同,此單倍型只存在一些中國豬種或稀少之歐洲豬種中。綜合上述,細胞色素 b 與 SRY 基因可以用來追蹤黑豬之種原關係,以及應用 PCR-PRLP 技術可以正確判定黑豬 MC1R G727A之基因型,避免配種產生紅棕色外觀之肉豬。
英文摘要 To increase the growth rate of the black pig, the creation of a hybrid one has been worked frequently in Taiwan. However, hybridization may influence the parental breed and cause genetic instability in the coat colors of the black pig population; black pigs are typically born with a reddish-brown coat. Three genes associated with the parental breed and coat color of the pig which included the Cytb gene of mitochondria DNA, Y chromosome of the SRY gene, and the melanocortin 1 receptor gene (MC1R) in chromosome 6.
The aim of this study was to establish the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique combined with the restriction fragment length (RFLP), the high resolution melting (HRM), and the single-strain conformation polymorphism (SSCP) to detect the Cytb, SRY, and MC1R genes which may be used to determine the breed source and coat color of black pigs obtained from the supermarket, traditional market and pig farm in Taiwan.
Through the analysis of MC1R gene, a single nucleotide alteration was found in the coden 1 at position G727, causing an alanine (GCG) to threonine (ACG) exchange (G>A) and resulting in a reddish-brown phenotype. MC1R G727A can be used as the molecular marker of a black or reddish-brown coat. The genotype frequencies corresponding GG, GA, and AA were 0.15, 0.85, and 0 sampling from the supermarket, 0.34, 0.66 and 0 from the traditional market, and 0.73, 0.27, and 0 from the pig farm, respectively. The allele frequency with A was 0.43 of the supermarket pig, 0.33 of the traditional market pig and 0.13 of the pig farms, respectively. In addition, another nucleotide alteration from GCG to GCA was observed at position G729. The genotype frequencies corresponding to GG, GA, and AA were 0.92, 0.04, and 0.04 sampling from the supermarket, 0.61, 0.39 and 0 from the traditional market and 0.69, 0.15, and 0.15 from the pig farm, respectively. The allele frequencies with A were 0.06, 0.20, and 0.23 of the supermarket pigs, the traditional market pigs, and the pig farms, respectively. The sequence contains 4 SNPs located at positions 15036 (T/C), 15038 (G/A), 15045 (C/T), and 15046 (G/A) of the pig mtDNA, and the European (E = TGCG) and Asian (A = CATA) haplotypes are combined. The originality of swine breeds was determined by conducting a joint analysis of the mitochondrial Cytb gene in 27 black pigs collected from supermarkets, revealing that 19 samples contained the European genotype and 8 samples contained the Asian haplotypes. In addition, 46 and 28 pigs obtained from traditional markets contained the European and Asian haplotypes, respectively, whereas 19 and 7 pigs obtained from pig farms contained the European and Asian haplotypes, respectively. Furthermore, the sequence contains 3 SNPs located at coding positions c.135 (C/G), c.593 (G/C), and c.637 (G/C) on the SRY gene, and the European (E = CGG) and Chinese haplotypes (C = GGC) were combined. However, an analysis of the SRY haplotype indicated that all 101 samples obtained from supermarkets and traditional markets contained the European haplotype. 6 Of the 8 pigs obtained from pig farms were European. Moreover, one SRY haplotype, which was similar to that of a Taoyuan pig, was observed in 2 samples obtained from a pig farm in Pingtung, Taiwan. The uncommon haplotype was observed in several Chinese and rare European breeds. In conclusion, both the Cytb and SRY genes in pigs may provide insight into the phylogenetic relationships of black pigs, and the PCR-PRLP method can be used to determine the genotypes of black pigs to prevent the production of pigs that are phenotypically reddish brown.
論文目次 目錄
頁次
中文摘要 I
Abstract III
致謝 VI
表次 XIV
圖次 XVI
壹、前言 1
貳、文獻探討 4
一、台灣黑豬 4
(一) 黑豬的品種 5
(二) 毛色的形成 8
二、種原檢測技術 11
(一) 微衛星DNA 11
(二) 粒線體 12
1. 功能特性 12
2. 粒線體 DNA 在豬的應用 13
(三) Y染色體 14
1. SRY基因的功能及應用 15
2. 比較SRY基因序列差異 16
三、毛色候選基因 17
(一) MC1R基因 17
(二) KIT 基因 19
(三) ASIP基因 21
(四) MITF基因 22
(五) TYR 基因家族 23
(六) 其他毛色候選基因 24
四、基因篩選與檢測的技術 25
(一) 限制片段長度多型性 25
(二) 高解析熔解分析法 26
(三) 單股核苷酸構形多型性 27
參、材料與方法 29
一、試驗大綱流程 29
二、試驗樣品來源 30
(一) 組織樣品 30
(二) 精液樣品 30
(三) 血液樣品 30
(四) 核酸樣品 31
三、核酸萃取 31
(一) 組織DNA之萃取 31
(二) 精液DNA之萃取 32
(三) 血液DNA之萃取 33
四、核酸品質之確立 34
(一) 瓊脂糖膠 (agarose gel) 電泳 34
(二) 超微量分光光度計 35
五、聚合酶鏈鎖反應 35
(一) 引子之設計 35
(二) PCR 反應條件之建立 36
(三) 豬第一型黑色素接受體基因 PCR 反應條件 37
(四) 豬細胞色素 b 基因 PCR反應條件之建立 37
(五) 豬SRY基因 PCR反應條件之建立 37
六、PCR 產物之純化 41
七、分析基因多型性之技術 41
(一) 限制片段長度多型性 (RFLP) 41
(二) 擴增創造限制酵素切位法 (ACRS) 42
(三) 高解析度熔點分析法評估 (HRM) 45
(四) 單股核苷酸多型性 (SSCP) 45
1. SSCP 膠體溶液製備 45
2. 鑄膠玻璃平板之架設 46
3. DNA樣品變性之處理 46
4. 電泳條件 46
5. 膠片染色與呈像 47
八、DNA 定序 49
九、統計分析 49
肆、結果 50
一、台灣黑豬 MC1R 基因 exon 1 codon 243 多型性檢測 50
(一) 建立 PCR-RFLP 分析豬 MC1R exon 1 codon 243基因多型性 50
(二) 以 HRM 法分析豬 MC1R exon 1 codon 243基因多型性 54
二、Cytochrome b基因單倍型檢測法 57
(一) 建立 PCR-RFLP 與 PCR-SSCP 分析技術 57
三、SRY 基因單倍型檢測法 62
(一) 建立 PCR-ACRS 分析技術 62
(二) 建立 PCR-HRM 分析SRY 基因的單倍型 68
四、梅山豬、桃園豬與杜洛克 MC1R、cytochrome b 與SRY基因之標準圖譜 73
(一) 梅山豬標準圖譜 73
(二) 桃園豬標準圖譜 75
(三) 杜洛克標準圖譜 77
五、調查各地區超級市場與傳統市場肉攤所販賣黑豬肉商品 MC1R 基因G727A 與 G729A 多型性 79
(一) 超級市場與傳統市場肉攤所販賣黑豬肉之 MC1R 基因G727A 與 G729A 多型性 79
(二) 宜蘭與屏東豬場黑豬之 MC1R 基因G727A 與 G729A 多型性 85
六、調查各地區超級市場與傳統市場肉攤所販賣黑豬肉之母系種原 88
(一) 超級市場與傳統市場肉攤所販賣黑豬肉之母系種原 88
(二) 調查宜蘭與屏東種豬場黑豬之母系種原 91
七、調查各地區超級市場與傳統市場肉攤所販賣黑豬肉之父系種原 93
(一) 超級市場與傳統市場肉攤所販賣黑豬肉之父系種原 93
(二) 調查宜蘭與屏東種豬場黑豬之父系種原 96
伍、討論 98
一、建立台灣黑豬毛色之檢測法 98
二、建立豬粒線體細胞色素 b 基因單倍型之檢測法 100
三、建立SRY 基因單倍型之檢測法 102
四、各地區對黑豬之偏好 104
陸、結論 107
柒、參考文獻 108

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系統識別號 U0046-3008201412284400
論文名稱(中文) 初探宜蘭地區農業部門水足跡與全球暖化關聯性之量性與質性研究-以水稻為例
論文名稱(英文) A preliminary case study for exploring the relations between the water footprint of agriculture sector related to oryza sativa at Ilan county and global warming on the basis of qualitative and quantitative approaches
校院名稱 宜蘭大學
系所名稱(中) 環境工程學系
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 李嘉祥
學號 R0124009
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2014-06-17
論文頁數 125頁
口試委員 委員-張育傑
委員-郭乃文
委員-余泰毅
委員-江漢全
指導教授-張益誠
關鍵字(中) (產品)水足跡揭露
藍水足跡
綠水足跡
灰水足跡
水稻
全球暖化
WFN (Water Foot print Network)
ISO14046:2013
關鍵字(英) (Product) Water Footprint Disclosure
Blue Water Footprint
Green Water Footprint
Gray Water Footprint
Oryza Sativa
Global Warming
Water Footprint Network (WFN)
ISO14046
學科別分類 學科別應用科學環境工程
中文摘要 隨著近代工業化以及人口的快速發展,各種有限天然資源已經面臨耗竭,由於淡水資源對於生命的重要性是無可取代的,因此水資源對人類的衝擊將比能源危機更為嚴重,且水資源匱乏、全球暖化已被並列聯合國列為全球人類未來能否永續發展的關鍵性環境議題。水足跡(Water Footprint)乙詞,係為Hoekstra依據「虛擬水(Virtual water)」概念,於2002年正式提出,其概念與生態足跡(Eco footprint)、碳足跡(carbon footprint)相似,皆是以生命週期(LC, Life Cycle)觀點,來探討人類日常衣、食、住、行直、間接用水需求對環境造成之負荷。
前揭淡水資源對人類維生(含糧食)系統目前及未來之重要性,且因水足跡可透過LC觀點,係以包含直接、間接用水之「用水量(water use)」指標而非傳統「取水量(water withdrawal)」觀點,來檢視(淡)水資源之使用情況。爰此,本研究因地緣關係,嘗試以宜蘭地區作為空間範疇(Spatial scope),再以該地區農業部門主要用水之糧食農作物「水稻(Oryza sativa)」作為優先研究對象標的物(Studying target),初探並分析其水足跡與全球暖化關聯性,進而提出研究結論與建議,以協助水資源管理者掌握水稻耕種之水資源使用狀況,並提供一般使用者理解稻米(淡)水足跡使用資訊(水足跡揭露)。
惟,國內現階段針對水足跡應仍處初探研究階段,公部門尚未正式採與產品碳足跡(CFP)相容方式,嘗試建立國內標準作業程序(SOP)、估算架構、原則及相關參數庫存等。因而本研究擬參酌國內、外既有相關研究文獻與經驗基礎(例如WFN、IS014046),以近十餘年來(2001至2010)公部門之有效資料源(例如中央氣象局、農委會、水利署、宜蘭農田水利會等),界定為本研究時間與資料範疇(Temporal and Data scope),進而導入因地制宜思維,嘗試建立本研究命題之研究分析架構。
英文摘要 The tremendous expansions of industrialization and population growth over the last three decades have caused the depletion crisis on some essential and limited natural resources for human being. There is no substitute in life for freshwater resources, so the impacts of water crisis on humans are more serious than that of the energy crisis. Water resource scarcity and global warming have been listed by the United Nations as key environmental issues for global sustainable development. The word water footprint was formally proposed in 2002 by Hoekstra according to the concept of virtual water. Similar to eco footprint and carbon footprint, the term explores the direct and indirect impacts of water needs in our daily life on the environment from the perspective of the Life Cycle (LC).
The current and future importance of freshwater resources to support of life (including food) systems of human are mentioned above. From the perspective of LC, water footprint includes direct and indirect water usage indicators rather than traditional water withdrawal indicators for monitoring of (fresh) water resources. Considering geopolitical relations, therefore, this study takes Yilan as spatial scope and Oryza sativa, a major water food crop in the agricultural sector of this region, as the priority study target to explore and analyze the relevance to global warming of water footprint. Conclusions and recommendations are suggested to assist water managers to allocate the use of water resources in Oryza sativa farming and general understanding of rice water footprint (water footprint disclosure) is also provided.
The domestic water footprint research is, however, in developing stages, and the public sector has not yet formally adopted a CFP compatible approach to establish domestic SOPs, estimate architecture, principles, and relevant parameter inventory. Thus, this study plans to define the temporal and data scope with valid data sources from the public sector (for example the Central Weather Bureau, the Council of Agriculture, the Water Resources Agency and the Yilan Irrigation Association) over the past decade (2001-2010) by referring to domestic and foreign research literature and experience (for example WFN and IS014046) to establish an appropriate research framework based on local conditions.
論文目次 摘要 I
Abstract II
目錄 III
表目錄 VI
圖目錄 VII
第一章、緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究目的 3
1.3 研究系統架構 4
第二章、文獻回顧 6
2.1台灣水資源環境 6
2.2全球暖化 8
2.21全球暖化成因 8
2.22全球暖化影響 10
2.23全球暖化對農業的衝擊 12
2.24全球暖化對台灣水稻產業之影響 13
2.3 WFN/ Water Footprint Manual 14
2.31水足跡起源 - 虛擬水 14
2.32水足跡的名義 14
2.33 WFN水足跡評估原則 15
2.34水足跡估算對象 16
2.35個人水足跡試算與水足跡係數資料庫存現況 19
2.4 ISO14046:2013 20
2.4.1 ISO14046:2013之重要名詞定義 21
2.4.2 ISO14046:2013水足跡評估流程與基本原則 22
2.5 ISO14046:2013與WFN評估手冊之差異 23
2.6 CROPWAT模式 24
2.7 國內研究現況 25
2.8全球水資源保育意識 27
第三章、研究方法與流程 29
3.1研究範疇 29
3.12宜蘭水稻品種 31
3.2水足跡估算 32
3.21藍水足跡 33
3.22綠水足跡 34
3.23 CROPWAT 8.0模式 35
3.24灰水足跡 40
第四章、研究結果與討論 44
4.1臺灣地區稻米供需現況分析 44
4.2氣候變遷因素對水稻產量影響現況分析 46
4.3 災害性天氣對宜蘭地區水稻產量影響之現況分析 47
4.4宜蘭地區水稻產量之現況分析 50
4.5氣候變遷對宜蘭地區溫度影響之現況分析 51
4.6氣候變遷對宜蘭地區降雨量之現況分析 53
4.7 水足跡估算與分析 54
4.7.1 藍水足跡 54
4.7.2 綠水足跡 60
4.7.3 灰水足跡分析 70
4.8水足跡組成分析 72
4.8.1 水足跡整體分析 72
4.8.2 水足跡結果內涵及未來消長 73
4.9 水足跡比較 74
第五章、結論與建議 77
5.1結論 77
5.2建議 79
六、參考文獻 80
附錄一 85
附錄二 106
附錄三 112
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系統識別號 U0046-3112201314382500
論文名稱(中文) 磁鐵礦表面修飾含氮高分子聚合物以應用於吸附水中銦離子
論文名稱(英文) Magnetite modified with Amine Polymer to Adsorb Indium ions in Aqueous Solution
校院名稱 宜蘭大學
系所名稱(中) 環境工程學系
學年度 102
學期 1
出版年 102
研究生(中文) 陳怡臻
學號 r0124008
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2013-12-26
論文頁數 99頁
口試委員 指導教授-邱求三
委員-洪桂彬
委員-陳華偉
關鍵字(中) 磁性顆粒;高分子;乙二胺;吸附;銦離子
關鍵字(英) magnetic adsorbent
ethylenediamine
adsorb
Indium ions
學科別分類 學科別應用科學環境工程
中文摘要 磁性顆粒做為吸附劑載體,可克服水溶液中微小顆粒之回收問題。本研究以製備磁性載體表面修飾含氮高分子聚合物以吸附水中銦離子。此磁性吸附劑以Fe3O4為核心,經油酸包覆後(OA/Fe3O4)做為磁性載體,所包覆之高分子單體甲基丙烯酸甲酯(MMA),乙二醇二甲基丙烯酸酯為交聯劑,聚乙烯吡咯烷酮為穩定劑,偶氮二異丁腈為引發劑,以製備出表面包覆高分子之磁性吸附劑(MMA/OA/Fe3O4);再利用乙二胺(EDA)與甲基丙烯酸甲酯反應,進而將胺基接上磁性吸附劑表面(EDA/MMA/OA/Fe3O4),並利用此胺基化合物來吸附銦離子。實驗中利用FTIR、XRD及TGA等方法進行材料特徵分析。經由吸附反應之pH値探討發現,水溶液pH値為4.5± 0.1時,為較佳吸附pH值;將等溫吸附實驗數據代入模式後發現,EDA/MMA/OA/Fe3O4對銦離子的吸附行為較符合Langmuir吸附模式,並估算其最大吸附量及自由能分別為54.18 mg/g與 -17.94 kJ/mol;而由動力吸附實驗所求得反應之活化能為5.96 kJ/mol。在脫附實驗條件探討發現,0.01 M 的硝酸溶液對磁性高分子材料可達到脫附銦離子的目的。
英文摘要 Indium is one of the contaminants of the optoelectronics industry, and adsorption is a potential treatment method of this pollutant. Magnetic adsorbent manufactured from magnetite (Fe3O4) can be easily recovered from treated water by magnetic force, without requiring further downstream treatment. In this research, the surface of magnetite modified with oleic acid, methyl methacrylate and ethylenediamine (EDA/MMA/OA/Fe3O4). It was used to adsorb indium ions in an aqueous solution in a batch system. The indium ions adsorption behavior by EDA/MMA/OA/Fe3O4 was in good agreement both with the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm, and the maximum adsorption capacity (qm) and Gibbs free energy of indium at 298 K was 54.18 mg/g and -17.94 kJ/mol, respectively. A pseudo-second-order model could best describe the adsorption kinetics, and the derived activation energy was 5.96 kJ/mol. The optimum condition to desorb indium ions from EDA/MMA/OA/Fe3O4 is provided by a solution with 0.01 M HNO3.
論文目次 摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
目錄 III
圖目錄 VI
表目錄 VIII
第一章、前言 1
1.1 研究緣起 1
1.2 研究目標 3
1.2.1 製備含氮之磁性高分子聚合物: 3
1.2.2 利用含氮高分子磁性聚合材料(EDA/MMA/OA/Fe3O4)吸附水中銦離子之研究: 4
第二章、文獻回顧 6
2.1 磁性載體簡介 6
2.1.1 氧化鐵 6
2.1.2 磁性載體(Fe3O4) 8
2.1.3 磁學性質 10
2.1.3.1 磁性材料分類 10
2.1.3.2 磁性材料之磁區與磁滯曲線 14
2.1.3.3 磁性材料之磁區與粒徑關聯 15
2.1.4 磁性顆粒表面改性 19
2.2 油酸/Fe3O4顆粒(OA/Fe3O4) 20
2.2.1 油酸特性 20
2.2.2 油酸包覆Fe3O4顆粒之文獻 21
2.3 磁性聚合材料(MMA/OA/Fe3O4) 22
2.3.1 聚合作用 22
2.3.1.1 傳統方法(本體聚合、沉澱聚合) 22
2.3.1.2 原位聚合法 22
2.3.1.3 懸浮聚合法 22
2.3.1.4 分散聚合法 23
2.3.1.5 乳液(乳膠)聚合法 23
2.3.2 磁性聚合材料選擇 24
2.3.2.1 功能單體的選擇 24
2.3.2.2 交聯劑的選擇 24
2.3.2.3 穩定劑的選擇 25
2.3.2.4 引發劑的選擇 25
2.3.3 合成磁性聚合材料之文獻整理 26
2.4 聚合材料之表面修飾 27
2.4.1 材料表面修飾 27
2.4.1.1 以有機物質修飾材料表面 27
2.4.1.2 以無機物質修飾材料表面 27
2.4.1.3 以生物分子修飾材料表面 27
2.4.2 以乙二胺(EDA)修飾磁性聚合材料(MMA/OA/Fe3O4) 32
2.4.3 以乙二胺(EDA)修飾材料表面之文獻整理 32
2.5 銦介紹 34
2.5.1 銦簡介 34
2.5.1.1 銦的分佈及用途 34
2.5.1.2 銦的特性 34
2.5.2 含銦之廢水及吸附法應用於處理水中銦離子 35
2.6 吸附理論 37
2.6.1 吸附類型 37
2.6.2 等溫吸附理論 38
2.6.3 熱力學研究 39
2.6.3 吸附動力學 40
2.6.4 影響吸附的因子 41
第三章、材料與方法 43
3.1 實驗藥品與儀器 43
3.1.1 實驗藥品 43
3.1.2 儀器 44
3.2 聚合物的製備 45
3.2.1 油酸包覆磁性載體(OA/Fe3O4 ) 45
3.2.2 磁性聚合材料的製備(MMA/OA/Fe3O4 ) 45
3.2.3 含氮高分子之磁性聚合材料的製備(EDA/MMA/OA/Fe3O4 ) 47
3.3 特徵分析 48
3.3.1 掃描式電子顯微鏡(Scanning electron microscope,簡稱SEM) 48
3.3.2 傅立葉轉換紅外線光譜儀(Fourier Transfer Infrared Instruments,簡稱FT-IR) 48
3.3.3 紫外光/可見光光譜儀(UV/VIS Spectrophotometer) 49
3.3.4 X射線繞射儀(X-ray diffractometer,簡稱XRD) 49
3.3.5 熱重分析(Thermogravimetric Analyzer,簡稱TGA) 50
3.3.6 比表面積分析儀 (Surface Area and Porosimetry System,簡稱BET) 51
3.3.7 磁性分析(Vibrating Sample Magnetometer,簡稱VSM) 51
3.4 吸附實驗 52
3.4.1 等溫吸附實驗 52
3.4.2 動力吸附實驗 53
3.4.3 競爭實驗 53
3.4.4 脫附實驗 54
3.4.5 重複實驗 54
第四章、結果與討論 55
4.1 特徵分析 55
4.1.1 掃描式電子顯微鏡(SEM)分析 55
4.1.2 傅立葉轉換紅外線光譜儀(FT-IR)分析 58
4.1.3 紫外光/可見光光譜儀(UV/VIS) 60
4.1.4 X射線繞射儀(XRD) 62
4.1.5 熱重分析(TGA) 63
4.1.6 比表面積分析(BET) 64
4.1.7 磁性分析(VSM) 65
4.2 吸附實驗 66
4.2.1 零電點 66
4.2.2 pH值影響 66
4.2.3 空白吸附實驗 68
4.2.4 等溫吸附實驗 69
4.2.5 熱力學研究 71
4.2.6 動力吸附實驗 72
4.2.7 競爭實驗 75
4.2.8 脫附實驗 77
4.2.9 重複實驗 79
第五章、結論 80
5.1 特徵分析 80
5.2 材料吸附 81
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